اثر پیری مصنوعی بذر بر شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی، استقرار گیاهچه و عملکرد دو رقم لوبیا قرمز (Phaseolus vulgaris .L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه اگرواکولوژی، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات ، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات ، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

4 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

5 گروه اگرواکولوژی، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر پیری بذر بر شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی در شرایط آزمایشگاهی و استقرار گیاهچه و عملکرد گیاه لوبیا در شرایط مزرعه، پژوهشی در سال 90-1389 در آزمایشگاه و مزرعه آموزشی-پژوهشی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران روی دو رقم لوبیا قرمز انجام شد. ارقام لوبیا شامل اختر و صیاد و سطح پیری مصنوعی شامل، صفر (شاهد)، 2، 4 و 6 روز پیری مصنوعی با طرح فاکتوریل و درقالب طرح بلوک‌های کاملا تصادفی در 4 تکرار بود. نتایج نشان داد که تیمار پیری بذر، درصد جوانه‌زنی، سرعت جوانه‌زنی، گیاهچه‌های طبیعی و بنیه‌وزنی گیاهچه را در آزمون جوانه‌زنی استاندارد به طور معنی‌داری کاهش داد. همچنین، تیمار پیری بذر سبب کاهش معنی‌دار صفات درصد جوانه‌زنی، سرعت جوانه‌زنی، طول و وزن خشک گیاهچه، گیاهچه‌های طبیعی و بنیه‌وزنی گیاهچه در آزمون پیری تسریع شده گردید. بین رقم‌های مورد مطالعه نیز تفاوت معنی‌داری از نظر درصد جوانه‌زنی، سرعت جوانه‌زنی، گیاهچه‌های طبیعی، طول گیاهچه، بنیه وزنی گیاهچه و هدایت الکتریکی بذر مشاهده گردید. در آزمون هدایت الکتریکی، مقدار به دست آمده با افزایش شدت پیری افزایش یافت که این افزایش در رقم اختر بیشتر از صیاد بود. در شرایط مزرعه، صفات سبز شدن و عملکرد تحت تاثیر رقم و تیمار پیری قرار گرفت. اعمال پیری بذر سبب کاهش معنی‌دار شاخص ظهور گیاهچه، درصد استقرار و عملکرد دانه گردید که این کاهش در رقم اختر بیشتر از صیاد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abdul-Baki, A.A., and J.D. Anderson. 1973. Vigour determination in soybean by multiple criteria. Crop Sci. 13: 630-633.

Ayaz, S., D.L. McNiel, B.A. McKenzie, andG.D. Hill. 2001. Population and sowing effectson yield component of grain legumes. 10th Aust. Agron. Conf., Hobart, 2001.

Balouchi, H.R., F. Bagheri, R. Kaed-Nezami, M. Movahedi-Dehnavi, and A.R. Yadavi. 2014.Effect of seed aging on germination and seedling growth indices in three cultivars of Brassica napus L. J. Plant Res. 26(4): 397-411. (In Persian).   

Basra, S.M.A., N. Ahmad, M.M. Khan, N. Iqbal, and M.A. Cheema. 2003. Assessment of cottonseed deterioration during accelerated ageing. Seed Sci. Technol. 31: 531-540.

Bewley, J.D. and M. Black. 1994. Seeds: Physiology of Development and Germination. Plenum Press.

Cruz-Garcia, F., V.A. Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. Molina-Moreno, and J.M. Vazquez-Ramos. 1995. Seed deterioration and respiration as related to DNA metabolism in germinating maize. Seed Sci. Technol. 23: 477-486.

Dadivar, M., M.A. Khodshenas, J. Ghadbiklo, and A. Ghadiri. 2009. Evaluation of the effect of rhizobium strains on yield and yield components of red bean cultivars. Soil Water Sci. 26(2): 185-193. (In Persian).   

Dehghan-shoar, M., A. Hamidi, and S. Mobasser. 2005. Evaluation techniques seed vigor. Tehran. Agricultural education publishing. (In Persian).   

Demir, I., and R.H. Ellis. 1993. Changes in potential seed longevity and seedling growth during seed development and maturation in marrow. Seed Sci. Res. 3: 247-257.

Ellis, R.H., and C. Pieta Filho. 1992. Seed development and cereal seed longevity. Seed Sci. Res. 2: 9-15.

Ellis, R.H., and E.H. Roberts. 1981. The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. J. Seed Sci. Technol. 9: 377-409.

Esmaeilzadeh, J., A. Aharizad, A. Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, and A. Shafaati Kohestani. 2010. Effect of Seed Deterioration on Agronomic Traits and Grain Yield of Two Corn Hybrids. Agric. Sci. 19(2): 119-128.(In Persian).   

Gharineh M.H., A.M. Bakhshandeh, and K. Ghassemi-Golezani. 2004. Effects of viability and vigour of seed on establishment and grain yield of wheat cultivars in field conditions. Seed Plant Improvement J. 20(3): 383-400. (In Persian).   

Ghasemi-golezani, K., J. Bakhshy, Y. Raey, and A. Hossainzadeh-Mahootchy. 2010a. Seed Vigor and Field Performance of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars. Not. Bot. Hortic. Agrobot. Cluj. Napoca. 38(3): 146-150.

Ghassemi-Golezani, K., S. Khomari, B. Dalil, A. Hosseinzadeh-Mahootchy, and A. Chadordooz-Jeddi. 2010b. Effects of seed aging on field performance of winter oilseed rape. J. Food Agric. Environ. 8: 175-178.

Gholami Tilebeni, H., and A. Golpayegani. 2011. Effect of seed ageing on physiological and biochemical changes in rice seed (Oryza sativa L.). Int. J. Agri. Sci. 1(3): 138-143.

Hamidi, A., R. Chaokan, A. Asgharzadeh, M. Dehghanshoar, A. Ghalavand, and M.J. Malakouti. 2009. Effect of application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on seedling emergence and establishment and grain yield of late maturity maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids in field conditions. Seed Plant Prod. J. 25(2): 183-206. (In Persian).

Hampton, J.G. and M.J. Hill. 1990. Herbage seed lots: Are germination data sufficient? Proc. New Zealand Grassland Assoc. 52.

Hampton, J.G. and D.M. Tekrony. 1995. Handbook of Vigour Testmethods (3rd.Ed). International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Zurich Switzerland.

Iqbal, N., SH.M.A. Basra, and K. Rehman. 2002. Evaluation of vigor and oil quality in cottonseed during accelerated ageing. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 4: 318-322.

ISTA. 2008. Handbook of Seedling Evaluation, 3rd Edition, ISTA Germination Committee, Zurich, Switzerland.

Janmohammadi, M., Y. Fallahnezhad, M. Golshan, and H. Mohammadi. 2008. Controlled ageing for storaibility assessment and predicting seedling early growth of canlola cultivars (Brassica napus L). ARPN J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 3: 22-26.

Johnston, R.R., and L.M. Wax. 1978. Relationship of soybean germination and vigour tests to field performance. Agron. J. 70: 273-278.

Khaje-Hosseini, M., A.A. Powell, and I.J. Bingham. 2003. The interaction between salinity stress and seed vigor during germination of soybean seeds. Seed Sci. Technol. 31: 715-721.

Khan, M.M., M.J. Iqbal, M. Abbas, and M. Usman. 2003. Effect of ageing on viability, vigor and chromosomal damage in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds. Pak. J. Agric. Sci. 40: 50–54.

Maguire, J.D. 1962. Speed of germination, aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigour. Crop Sci. 2: 176-177.

Mc Donald, M.B. 1999. Seed deterioration: physiology, repaire and assessment. Seed Sci. Technol. 27: 177-237.

Mitra, S., G. Ghose, and S.M. Sircar. 1974. Physiological changes in rice seeds during loss of viability. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 44: 744-751.

Mohammadi, H., A. Soltani, H. Sadeghipour and E. Zeinali. 2011. Effects of seed aging on subsequent seed reserve utilization and seedling growth in soybean. Int. J. Plant Prod. 5(1): 65-70.

Mohsen nasab, F., M. Sharafizadeh, and A. Seyadat. 2009. Effect of seed exhaustion (accelerated aging) and seedling growth of wheat cultivars under laboratory conditions.Crop Physiol. J. 2(3): 1-13.

Mousavi Nik, S.M., H. Gholami Tilebeni, E. Zeinali and A. Tavassoli. 2011. Effects of Seed Ageing on Heterotrophic Seedling Growth in Cotton. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 10 (4): 653-657.

Nautityle, P.C., V. Ravindra, and J.B. Misra. 1997. Response of dormant and non dormant seeds of groundnut (Arachis hypogea) genotype to accelerated ageing. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 67: 67–70.

Nautiyal, A.R., A.P. Thapliyal, and A.N. Purohit. 1985. Seed viability in Sal. IV. Protein changes: ccompanying loss of viability in Shorea robusta. Seed Sci. Technol. 13: 83-86.

Orchard, T. 1977. Estemating the parameters of plant seedling emergence. Seed Sci. Technol. 5: 61-69.

Raey, Y., and K. Ghassemi-Golezani. 2009. Yield-density relationship for potato (Solanum tuberosum) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in intercropping. New Zealand J Crop Hortic. Sci. 37: 141-147.

Rastegar, Z., M. Sedighi, and S. Khomari. 2011. Effects of Accelerated Aging on Soybean Seed Germination Indexes at Laboratory Conditions. Not. Sci. Biol. 3(3): 126-129.

Rozrokh, M., K. Ghasemi-golezani, and A. Javanshir. 2002. Relationship between seed vigor and field performance in chickpea (Cicer asietinum L.).  Seed Plant Improvement J.  18(2): 156-169. (In Persian).   

Sadr-Abadi, R. 2007. Comparison of potassium leachate and electrical conducitvity tests in alfalfa seed vigor evaluation. Iranian J. Field Crop Res. 5(1): 97-108. (In Persian).   

Saha, R.R., and W. Sultana. 2008. Influence of seed ageing on growth and yield of soybean. Bangladesh J.  Bot. 37: 21-26.

Scott, S.J., R.A. Jones, and W.A. Williams. 1984. Review of data analysis methods for seed germination. Crop. Sci. 24: 1192-1199.

Soltani, A., M. Gholipour and E. Zeinali. 2006. Seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of wheat as affected by drought and salinity. Environ. Exp. Bot. 55: 195-200.

Soltani, E., B. Kamkar, S. Ghaleshi, and F. Akram Ghaderi. 2008. The effect of seed deterioration on seed reserve depletion and heterotrophic seedling growth of wheat. J. Agric. Sci. Natur. Resour. 1: 193-120.

Steiner, J.J., D.F. Grabe, and M. Tulo. 1989. Single and Multiple Vigour test for predicting seeding emergence of Wheat. Crop Sci. 29: 782-786.

Sung, J.M. 1996. Lipid Peroxidation and peroxidase scavenging insoybean seeds during aging. Physiol. Plant. 97: 85–9.

Tatipata, A. 2009. Effect of seed moisture content packaging and storage period on mitochondria inner membrane of soybean seed. J. Agric. Technol. 5(1): 51-64.

Tayo, T.O., and D.G. Morgan. 1979.Factor influencing flower and poddevelopment in oilseed rape. J. Agric. Sci. Cambridge. 92: 363-373.

Tekrony, D. M., and J. L. Hunter. 1995. Effect of seed maturation and genotype on seed vigor in maize. Crop Sci. 35: 857-862.

Tekrony, D.M., and D.B. Egli. 1991.  Relationship of seed vigor to crop Yield: A Review. Crop Sci. 31: 816–822

Thornton, J.M., A.R.S, Collins, and A.A. Powell. 1993. The effect of aerated hydration on DNA synthesis in embryos of Brassica oleracea L. Seed Sci. Res. 3: 195-199.

Trawatha, S.E., D.M. Tekrony, and D.F. Hidebrand. 1995. Relationship of soybean seed quality to fatty acid and C6–Aldehyde levels during storage. Crop Sci. 35: 1415–22.

Verma, S.S., U. Verma, and R.P.S. Tomer. 2003. Studies on seed quality parameters in deteriorating seeds in Brassica (Brassica campestris). Seed Sci. Technol. 31: 389-396.

Vieira, R.D., A.S. Neto, S.R.M. Bittencourt, and M. Panobianco. 2004. Electrical Conductivity of the Seed soaking solution and soybean seedling emergence. Sci. Agric. 61(2): 164-168.

Viera, R.D., J.A. Paiva, and D. Perecin. 1999a. Electrical conductivity and field performance of soybean seeds. Seed Tech. (21): 15-24.

Viera, R.D., J.A. Paiva, D. Perecin, and S.R.M. Bittencourt. 1999b. Correlation of electrical conductivity and other vigor tests with field emergence of soybean seedlings. Seed Sci. Technol. 27: 67-75.

Vishwanath, K., H.M. Pallavi, P.J. Devraju, and Y. Prashanth. 2011.  Prediction of storability of different seed size grades of French bean varieties through accelerated ageing response. Res. J. Agri. Sci. 2(2): 213-216.

Yuste-Lisbona, F.J., A.M. González, C. Capel, M. García-Alcázar, J. Capel, A.M. De Ron, and R. Lozano. 2014. Genetic variation underlying pod size and color traits of common bean depends on 

1-       Abdul-Baki, A.A., and J.D. Anderson. 1973. Vigour determination in soybean by multiple criteria. Crop Sci. 13: 630-633.

2-       Ayaz, S., D.L. McNiel, B.A. McKenzie, andG.D. Hill. 2001. Population and sowing effectson yield component of grain legumes. 10th Aust. Agron. Conf., Hobart, 2001.

3-       Balouchi, H.R., F. Bagheri, R. Kaed-Nezami, M. Movahedi-Dehnavi, and A.R. Yadavi. 2014.Effect of seed aging on germination and seedling growth indices in three cultivars of Brassica napus L. J. Plant Res. 26(4): 397-411. (In Persian).   

4-       Basra, S.M.A., N. Ahmad, M.M. Khan, N. Iqbal, and M.A. Cheema. 2003. Assessment of cottonseed deterioration during accelerated ageing. Seed Sci. Technol. 31: 531-540.

5-       Bewley, J.D. and M. Black. 1994. Seeds: Physiology of Development and Germination. Plenum Press.

6-       Cruz-Garcia, F., V.A. Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. Molina-Moreno, and J.M. Vazquez-Ramos. 1995. Seed deterioration and respiration as related to DNA metabolism in germinating maize. Seed Sci. Technol. 23: 477-486.

7-       Dadivar, M., M.A. Khodshenas, J. Ghadbiklo, and A. Ghadiri. 2009. Evaluation of the effect of rhizobium strains on yield and yield components of red bean cultivars. Soil Water Sci. 26(2): 185-193. (In Persian).   

8-       Dehghan-shoar, M., A. Hamidi, and S. Mobasser. 2005. Evaluation techniques seed vigor. Tehran. Agricultural education publishing. (In Persian).   

9-       Demir, I., and R.H. Ellis. 1993. Changes in potential seed longevity and seedling growth during seed development and maturation in marrow. Seed Sci. Res. 3: 247-257.

10-   Ellis, R.H., and C. Pieta Filho. 1992. Seed development and cereal seed longevity. Seed Sci. Res. 2: 9-15.

11-   Ellis, R.H., and E.H. Roberts. 1981. The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. J. Seed Sci. Technol. 9: 377-409.

12-   Esmaeilzadeh, J., A. Aharizad, A. Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, and A. Shafaati Kohestani. 2010. Effect of Seed Deterioration on Agronomic Traits and Grain Yield of Two Corn Hybrids. Agric. Sci. 19(2): 119-128.(In Persian).   

13-   Gharineh M.H., A.M. Bakhshandeh, and K. Ghassemi-Golezani. 2004. Effects of viability and vigour of seed on establishment and grain yield of wheat cultivars in field conditions. Seed Plant Improvement J. 20(3): 383-400. (In Persian).   

14-   Ghasemi-golezani, K., J. Bakhshy, Y. Raey, and A. Hossainzadeh-Mahootchy. 2010a. Seed Vigor and Field Performance of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars. Not. Bot. Hortic. Agrobot. Cluj. Napoca. 38(3): 146-150.

15-   Ghassemi-Golezani, K., S. Khomari, B. Dalil, A. Hosseinzadeh-Mahootchy, and A. Chadordooz-Jeddi. 2010b. Effects of seed aging on field performance of winter oilseed rape. J. Food Agric. Environ. 8: 175-178.

16-   Gholami Tilebeni, H., and A. Golpayegani. 2011. Effect of seed ageing on physiological and biochemical changes in rice seed (Oryza sativa L.). Int. J. Agri. Sci. 1(3): 138-143.

17-   Hamidi, A., R. Chaokan, A. Asgharzadeh, M. Dehghanshoar, A. Ghalavand, and M.J. Malakouti. 2009. Effect of application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on seedling emergence and establishment and grain yield of late maturity maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids in field conditions. Seed Plant Prod. J. 25(2): 183-206. (In Persian).

18-   Hampton, J.G. and M.J. Hill. 1990. Herbage seed lots: Are germination data sufficient? Proc. New Zealand Grassland Assoc. 52.

19-   Hampton, J.G. and D.M. Tekrony. 1995. Handbook of Vigour Testmethods (3rd.Ed). International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Zurich Switzerland.

20-   Iqbal, N., SH.M.A. Basra, and K. Rehman. 2002. Evaluation of vigor and oil quality in cottonseed during accelerated ageing. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 4: 318-322.

21-   ISTA. 2008. Handbook of Seedling Evaluation, 3rd Edition, ISTA Germination Committee, Zurich, Switzerland.

22-   Janmohammadi, M., Y. Fallahnezhad, M. Golshan, and H. Mohammadi. 2008. Controlled ageing for storaibility assessment and predicting seedling early growth of canlola cultivars (Brassica napus L). ARPN J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 3: 22-26.

23-   Johnston, R.R., and L.M. Wax. 1978. Relationship of soybean germination and vigour tests to field performance. Agron. J. 70: 273-278.

24-   Khaje-Hosseini, M., A.A. Powell, and I.J. Bingham. 2003. The interaction between salinity stress and seed vigor during germination of soybean seeds. Seed Sci. Technol. 31: 715-721.

25-   Khan, M.M., M.J. Iqbal, M. Abbas, and M. Usman. 2003. Effect of ageing on viability, vigor and chromosomal damage in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds. Pak. J. Agric. Sci. 40: 50–54.

26-   Maguire, J.D. 1962. Speed of germination, aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigour. Crop Sci. 2: 176-177.

27-   Mc Donald, M.B. 1999. Seed deterioration: physiology, repaire and assessment. Seed Sci. Technol. 27: 177-237.

28-   Mitra, S., G. Ghose, and S.M. Sircar. 1974. Physiological changes in rice seeds during loss of viability. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 44: 744-751.

29-   Mohammadi, H., A. Soltani, H. Sadeghipour and E. Zeinali. 2011. Effects of seed aging on subsequent seed reserve utilization and seedling growth in soybean. Int. J. Plant Prod. 5(1): 65-70.

30-   Mohsen nasab, F., M. Sharafizadeh, and A. Seyadat. 2009. Effect of seed exhaustion (accelerated aging) and seedling growth of wheat cultivars under laboratory conditions.Crop Physiol. J. 2(3): 1-13.

31-   Mousavi Nik, S.M., H. Gholami Tilebeni, E. Zeinali and A. Tavassoli. 2011. Effects of Seed Ageing on Heterotrophic Seedling Growth in Cotton. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 10 (4): 653-657.

32-   Nautityle, P.C., V. Ravindra, and J.B. Misra. 1997. Response of dormant and non dormant seeds of groundnut (Arachis hypogea) genotype to accelerated ageing. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 67: 67–70.

33-   Nautiyal, A.R., A.P. Thapliyal, and A.N. Purohit. 1985. Seed viability in Sal. IV. Protein changes: ccompanying loss of viability in Shorea robusta. Seed Sci. Technol. 13: 83-86.

34-   Orchard, T. 1977. Estemating the parameters of plant seedling emergence. Seed Sci. Technol. 5: 61-69.

35-   Raey, Y., and K. Ghassemi-Golezani. 2009. Yield-density relationship for potato (Solanum tuberosum) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in intercropping. New Zealand J Crop Hortic. Sci. 37: 141-147.

36-   Rastegar, Z., M. Sedighi, and S. Khomari. 2011. Effects of Accelerated Aging on Soybean Seed Germination Indexes at Laboratory Conditions. Not. Sci. Biol. 3(3): 126-129.

37-   Rozrokh, M., K. Ghasemi-golezani, and A. Javanshir. 2002. Relationship between seed vigor and field performance in chickpea (Cicer asietinum L.).  Seed Plant Improvement J.  18(2): 156-169. (In Persian).   

38-   Sadr-Abadi, R. 2007. Comparison of potassium leachate and electrical conducitvity tests in alfalfa seed vigor evaluation. Iranian J. Field Crop Res. 5(1): 97-108. (In Persian).   

39-   Saha, R.R., and W. Sultana. 2008. Influence of seed ageing on growth and yield of soybean. Bangladesh J.  Bot. 37: 21-26.

40-   Scott, S.J., R.A. Jones, and W.A. Williams. 1984. Review of data analysis methods for seed germination. Crop. Sci. 24: 1192-1199.

41-   Soltani, A., M. Gholipour and E. Zeinali. 2006. Seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of wheat as affected by drought and salinity. Environ. Exp. Bot. 55: 195-200.

42-   Soltani, E., B. Kamkar, S. Ghaleshi, and F. Akram Ghaderi. 2008. The effect of seed deterioration on seed reserve depletion and heterotrophic seedling growth of wheat. J. Agric. Sci. Natur. Resour. 1: 193-120.

43-   Steiner, J.J., D.F. Grabe, and M. Tulo. 1989. Single and Multiple Vigour test for predicting seeding emergence of Wheat. Crop Sci. 29: 782-786.

44-   Sung, J.M. 1996. Lipid Peroxidation and peroxidase scavenging insoybean seeds during aging. Physiol. Plant. 97: 85–9.

45-   Tatipata, A. 2009. Effect of seed moisture content packaging and storage period on mitochondria inner membrane of soybean seed. J. Agric. Technol. 5(1): 51-64.

46-   Tayo, T.O., and D.G. Morgan. 1979.Factor influencing flower and poddevelopment in oilseed rape. J. Agric. Sci. Cambridge. 92: 363-373.

47-   Tekrony, D. M., and J. L. Hunter. 1995. Effect of seed maturation and genotype on seed vigor in maize. Crop Sci. 35: 857-862.

48-   Tekrony, D.M., and D.B. Egli. 1991.  Relationship of seed vigor to crop Yield: A Review. Crop Sci. 31: 816–822

49-   Thornton, J.M., A.R.S, Collins, and A.A. Powell. 1993. The effect of aerated hydration on DNA synthesis in embryos of Brassica oleracea L. Seed Sci. Res. 3: 195-199.

50-   Trawatha, S.E., D.M. Tekrony, and D.F. Hidebrand. 1995. Relationship of soybean seed quality to fatty acid and C6–Aldehyde levels during storage. Crop Sci. 35: 1415–22.

51-   Verma, S.S., U. Verma, and R.P.S. Tomer. 2003. Studies on seed quality parameters in deteriorating seeds in Brassica (Brassica campestris). Seed Sci. Technol. 31: 389-396.

52-   Vieira, R.D., A.S. Neto, S.R.M. Bittencourt, and M. Panobianco. 2004. Electrical Conductivity of the Seed soaking solution and soybean seedling emergence. Sci. Agric. 61(2): 164-168.

53-   Viera, R.D., J.A. Paiva, and D. Perecin. 1999a. Electrical conductivity and field performance of soybean seeds. Seed Tech. (21): 15-24.

54-   Viera, R.D., J.A. Paiva, D. Perecin, and S.R.M. Bittencourt. 1999b. Correlation of electrical conductivity and other vigor tests with field emergence of soybean seedlings. Seed Sci. Technol. 27: 67-75.

55-   Vishwanath, K., H.M. Pallavi, P.J. Devraju, and Y. Prashanth. 2011.  Prediction of storability of different seed size grades of French bean varieties through accelerated ageing response. Res. J. Agri. Sci. 2(2): 213-216.

56-   Yuste-Lisbona, F.J., A.M. González, C. Capel, M. García-Alcázar, J. Capel, A.M. De Ron, and R. Lozano. 2014. Genetic variation underlying pod size and color traits of common bean depends on quantitative trait loci with epistatic effects. Mol. Breed. 33(4): 939-952.