تأثیر تاریخ کاشت و پرایمینگ بذر بر ضرایب تخصیص ماده خشک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم (Triticum aestivum L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر-مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی-سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

2 استادیار بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی-مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی-سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

3 کارشناس بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر- مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی-سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه اثر تاریخ کاشت و پرایمینگ بذر بر ضرایب تخصیص، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم آزمایش مزرعه‌ای در سال زراعی 91-1390 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی جلگه رخ تربت حیدریه به اجرا درآمد. این آزمایش به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار بر روی رقم گاسکوژن گندم انجام شد. تاریخ‌های کاشت در کرت‌های اصلی در 4 سطح (شامل 20 مهر، 5 آبان، 20 آبان و 5 آذر) و پرایمینگ بذر در کرت‌های فرعی در 8 سطح (شامل سید استارتر، کلپ، اسید فولیک، اسید هیومیک، کی اف اف، جیبرلین، آب مقطر و شاهد) قرار داشتند. نتایج نشان داد که تأخیر کاشت، سبب کاهش مدت نمو ، شاخص سطح برگ و ماده خشک کل گردید. تاریخ کاشت اثر معنی‌داری بر ضرایب تخصیص ماده خشک برگ و ساقه، سطح ویژه برگ و ضریب تخصیص سطح برگ داشت و با تأخیر در کاشت، مقدار سطح ویژه برگ (8%) و ضریب تخصیص سطح برگ (63%) افزایش و ضریب تخصیص سنبله (68%) کاهش یافت. نتایج هم‌چنین نشان داد تأخیر در کشت موجب کاهش ارتفاع گیاه (26%)، تعداد سنبله در مترمربع (73%)، وزن هزار دانه (11%)، عملکرد بیولوژیک (79%) و عملکرد دانه (83%) شد. پرایمینگ بذر سبب افزایش معنی‌دار شاخص سطح برگ و وزن برگ در مرحله 5 برگی و وزن خشک ساقه و وزن خشک کل در مرحله گرده افشانی شد. اثر مثبت پرایمینگ بر رشد گیاه، با پیشرفت نمو کاهش یافته و در مرحله رسیدگی به نتیجه مثبت معنی‌داری بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم منتهی نشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abbasnejad, A., N. Majnoon Hosseini, R. Tavakkol Afshari, and F. Sharifzadeh. 2009. An evaluation of the effect of changing the planting time through seed priming on seed yield and yield components in two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars..Iranian J. Field Crops Sci. 40(1): 7-13. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Aboutalebian, M.A., F. Sharifzade, M.R. Jahansouz, A. Ahmadi, and M.R. Naghavi. 2008. The effect of seed priming on germination, stand establishment and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)cultivars in three different climates of Iran. .Iranian J. Field Crops Sci. 39(1): 145-154. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Agha Alikhani, M., H. Rahimian Mashhadi, S.A.M. Modarres Sanavi, and Z. Tahmasbi Sarvestani. 2001. The effects of radiation intensity and light quality on development rate and dry matter distribution of Amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Agric. Sci. Technol. 15(2): 173-183.

Afzal, I., S.M. Basra, A. Ahmad, and A. Iqbal. 2002. Effect of different seed vigour enhancement techniques on hybrid maize (Zea mays L.). J. Agric. Sci. 39: 109-112.

Ahmad Amini, T., B. Kamkar, and A. Soltani. 2011. The effect of planting date on partitoning coefficient in some species of wheat. Electron. J. Crop Productivity. 4 (1): 131-150.(In Persian, with English Abstract).

Ahmadi, M., B. Kamkar, A. Soltani, E. Zeinali, and R. Arabameri. 2010. The effect of planting date on duration of phonological phase in wheat cultivar and it`s relation with grain yield. J. Plant Prod. 17(2): 109-121. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Ahmadi, M., B. Kamkar, A. Soltani, and E. Zeinali. 2009. Determination of the most important yield component of wheat in different sowing dates. J. Agric. Sci. Nat. Resources. 15(3): 109-121. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Ashraf, M., and M.R. Foolad. 2005. Pre-planting seed treatment approach to improve germination growth and crop yield under saline and none-saline conditions. Adv. Agron. 88: 223-271.

Bahari, M., T, Hosseinpour, and M. Rafiei. 2013. Effect of delayed planting on grain yield and some agronomic traits of wheat genotypes. Seed Plant Prod. J. 29(1): 47-66. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Dadashi, N., and M.R. Khajehpour. 2004. Effect of planting date and cultivar on growth, yield and yield components of safflower in Isfahan. J. Sci. Technol. Agric. Nat. Resources. 8 (3): 14-27. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Donaldson, E., W.F. Schillinger, and M.D. Stephen. 2001. Straw production and grain yield relationships in winter wheat. Crop Sci. 41:100 106.

Duman, I. 2006. Effects of seed priming with PEG or K3P on Germination and seedling Growth in Lettuce. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 9(5): 923-928.

Fathi, G., S.A. Siadat, N. Rossbe, A.R. Abdali-Mashhadi, and F. Ebrahimpoor. 2001. Effect of planting date and seed density on yield components and grain yield of wheat cv. Dena in Yassoj conditions. J. Agric. Sci. Nat. Resources. 8(3): 23-31. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Flowers, M., C. James, S. Petrie, S. Machado, and K. Rhinhart. 2006. Planting date and seeding rate effects on the yield of winter and spring wheat varieties results from the 2005-2006 cropping year. Int. J. Agric. Res.12(2): 72-74.

Gilak Hakim Abadi, M., M.J. Sinaki, A. Dashtban, and A. Norinia. 2015. Effect of Organic Fertilizers and Date of Planting on Varieties of Vigna radiata in the Initial Growth Stage. J. Crop Ecophysiol. 60(4): 567-578.

Giri, G.S., and W.F. Schillinger. 2003. Seed priming winter wheat for germination, emergence and yield. Crop Sci. 43: 2135-2141.

Haj Mohammadnia Ghalibaf, K., H. Aliyari, K. Ghasemi Golazani, and S.A. Mohammadi. 2006. Review of growth and development three varieties of winter rapseed (Brassica napus L.) at different planting date. Agric. Sci.. 16(3): 83-95. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Hamada, A.M. 1998. Effects of exogenously added ascorb acid, thiamin or aspirin on photosynthesis and some related activities of drought-stressed wheat plants. p. 2581-2584. In: G. Garab (Ed.) Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and effects. 4th Edition.Academic Publishers Group, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Harris, D., A. Rashid, G. Miraj, M. Arif, and M. Yunas. 2008. On-farm seed priming with zinc in chickpea and wheat in Pakistan. Plant Soil. 306: 3-10.

Hotsonyame, G.K., and L.A. Hunt. 1997. Seeding date, photoperiod and nitrogen effects on specific leaf area of field-grown wheat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 78: 51-61.

Hunt, L.A., and S. pararajasingham. 1995. CROPSIM - WIIEAT: A model describing the growth and development of wheat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 75: 619-632.

Imam, Y., and M. Niknejat. 1994. An Introduction to Crop Physiology. Shiraz University Press, Shiraz, Iran. (In Persian).

Jafarnejad, A. 2009. Determination of optimum planting date for bread wheat cultivars with different flowering habit in Neishabour. Seed Plant Prod. J. 25-2(2): 117-135. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Jenkins, P.D., and M.H. Leich. 1986. Effect of sowing date on the growth and yield of winter oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.). J. Agric. Sci.105: 405-420.

Mahmoud, F., and M.A. Arain. 2003. Effect of planting dates on growth and yield of wheat at different elevations in Jebel Marra high lands under rain-fed conditions. Agric. Res. 4(13): 154-162.

Manarifard, M., and A. Sepehri, 2012. Effect of seed Priming and Foliar Application of Zinc on Yield and Yield Components of two wheat Cultivars. J. Sustainable Agric. Prod. Sci. 22(4.1): 151-165. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

McLeod, J.G., G.A. Compbell, F.B. Dyck and C.L. Vera. 1992. Optimum seeding date for winter wheat in southwestern Saskatchevan. Agron. J.84: 86-90.

Midmore, D. J., P.M. Cartwright, and R.A. Fischer. 1984. Wheat in tropical environments. II. Crop growth and grain yield. Field Crops Res. 8: 207–227.

Miralles, D.J., B.C. Ferro, and A.G. Slafer. 2001. Developmental responses to planting date in wheat, barley and rapeseed. Field Crop Res. 71: 211-223.

Momtazi, F., Y. Emam, and N.A. Karimian. 2005. Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield of Winter Wheat in Response to Planting Density and Sowing Date. J. Sci. Technol. Agric. Nat. Resources. 9(3): 143-159. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Moosavi, R., M.A. Abootalebian, A. Sepehri, and A. Mahdizadeh. 2012. Effects of on-Farm Seed Priming and Planting date on Seedling Emergence, Biological Yield and some Physiological Indices of Corn (S.C.260) in Hamedan. Iranian J. Field Crops Sci. 43(1): 39-49. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Musa, A.M., D. Harris, C. Johansen, and J.J. Kumar.2004. Short duration chick pea to replacefallow after amanrice, therole of on- farmseed priming in the High Bang ladesh. Exp. Agric.37: 509-521.

Najiyan Tabriz, A., A. Kashani, S.B. Mahmoodi, and S. Sadeghzadeh Hemayati. 2013. Effect of sowing date and seed rate on yield of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) trap crop. J. Agron. Plant Breed. 9(2): 87-97. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Pakmehr, A., M. Rastgoo, F. Shekari, J. Saba, and E. Zangani. 2011. Effects of seed treatment with salicylic acid on som morpho-physiological characteristics and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under water deficit. Iranian J. Field Crops Res. 9(4): 606-614.(In Persian, with English Abstract).

Paulsen, G.M. 1987. Wheat stand establishment. p. 384-389. In: E.G. Heyne (Ed.) Wheat and wheat improvement. 2nd edition. Agron. Monogr.13 .ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI, U.S.A.

Penning de vries, F.W.T., D.M. Jansen, H.F.M. Ten Berge, and A. Bakema. 1989. Simulation of ecological processesof several annual crops. Simulation monograph 29, Pudoc, Wageningen and International Rice Research Institue,Manila.

Qasim, M., M. Qamer, and M. Alam. 2008. Planting dates effect on yield and yield components of different wheat varieties. J. Agric. Res. 46(2): 279-285.   

Rahnama, A., A. Hashemi Dezfuli, and A. Bakhshandeh. 1998. Study of contribution of tiller in total dry matter and grain yield of wheat cultivars in different plant densities. Seed and Plant. 14(2): 8-19. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Ranjbar, Gh.H., and M.H. Banakar. 2013.The best planting date for wheat in saline and non-saline conditions of Yazd province based to grain yield and water use efficiency. Iranian WaterRes. J. 7(12): 121-129. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Salih, F.A. 1987. Effects of sowing date, irrigation, weed control, and method of planting on faba bean yield and its components in the Khartoum area of the Sudan. Shambat Research Station, Khartoum, North Sudan.

Satoo, T., and H.A.I. Madgwick. 1982. Forest Biomass. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Sharifi, H.R. 2001. Growth pattern and dry matter partitioning in dryland wheat cultivars. PhD dissertation, Faculty of Agricultural, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.(In Persian, with English Abstract).

Sharifi, H.R. 2016. Response of phenological development stages, grain yied and yield components of bread wheat cultivars with different growth habits to delayed planting.Seed Plant Prod. J. 32-2(1):21-44. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Sial, M.A., M.A. Arian, S. Khanzada, M.H. Nagvi, M. Lemardahat, and N.A. Nizamani. 2005. Yield and quality parameters of wheat genotypes as affected by planting date and high temperature stress. Pakistan J. Bot. 37(3): 575-584.

Slafer, G.A., and Rawson, H.M. 1995. Photoperiod× Temperature interactions in contrasting wheat genotypes: time to heading and final leaf number. Field Crop Res. 44:73-83.

Solhaug, K.A. 1991. Influence of photoperiod and temperature on dry matter production and chlorophyll in temperate grasses. J. Agric. Sci. 5: 365–383.

Sreelatha, D., K.L. Rao, R. Veeraraghavaiah and M. Padmaja. 1997. Physiological variations in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars as affected by sowing dates. Agric. Res. 18: 111-114.

Srivastava, G.P., and V.C. Srivastava. 1996. Varieties and date of sowing of mung bean (Phaseolus radiata L.)in Bihar plateau. J. Res. Birsa Agric. Univ. 8: 17-19.

Tollenaar, M. 1989. Respons of dry matter accumulation in maiz to temperature; I. Dry matter portioning. Crop Sci. 29: 1239-1246.

Yarniya, M., V. Ahmadzadeh, A. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi, and N. Noori. 2008. Effect of priming and seed size and treated with tumbleweed extract on germination and growth of soybean. In: Proceedings of the First National Conference on Seed Science and Technology of Iran. 12-13 November 2008. University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Gorgan, Gorgan, Iran. (In Persian)

 

Zehtab Salmasi, S., A. Javanshir, R. Omid Beighi, H. Alyari, and K. Ghasemi. 2003. Ecophysiological effects of irrigation and planting date on growth, yield and yield components of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). Iranian J. Agric. Sci. 13(4): 37-43. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Abbasnejad, A., N. Majnoon Hosseini, R. Tavakkol Afshari, and F. Sharifzadeh. 2009. An evaluation of the effect of changing the planting time through seed priming on seed yield and yield components in two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars..Iranian J. Field Crops Sci. 40(1): 7-13. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Aboutalebian, M.A., F. Sharifzade, M.R. Jahansouz, A. Ahmadi, and M.R. Naghavi. 2008. The effect of seed priming on germination, stand establishment and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)cultivars in three different climates of Iran. .Iranian J. Field Crops Sci. 39(1): 145-154. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Agha Alikhani, M., H. Rahimian Mashhadi, S.A.M. Modarres Sanavi, and Z. Tahmasbi Sarvestani. 2001.The effects of radiation intensity and light quality on development rate and dry matter distribution of Amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Agric. Sci. Technol. 15(2): 173-183.

Afzal, I., S.M. Basra, A. Ahmad, and A. Iqbal. 2002. Effect of different seed vigour enhancement techniques on hybrid maize (Zea mays L.). J. Agric. Sci. 39: 109-112.

Ahmad Amini, T., B. Kamkar, and A. Soltani. 2011. The effect of planting date on partitoning coefficient in some species of wheat. Electron. J. Crop Productivity. 4 (1): 131-150.(In Persian, with English Abstract).

Ahmadi, M., B. Kamkar, A. Soltani, E. Zeinali, and R. Arabameri. 2010. The effect of planting date on duration of phonological phase in wheat cultivar and it`s relation with grain yield. J. Plant Prod. 17(2): 109-121. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Ahmadi, M., B. Kamkar, A. Soltani, and E. Zeinali. 2009. Determination of the most important yield component of wheat in different sowing dates. J. Agric. Sci. Nat. Resources. 15(3): 109-121. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Ashraf, M., and M.R. Foolad. 2005. Pre-planting seed treatment approach to improve germination growth and crop yield under saline and none-saline conditions. Adv. Agron. 88: 223-271.

Bahari, M., T, Hosseinpour, and M. Rafiei. 2013. Effect of delayed planting on grain yield and some agronomic traits of wheat genotypes. Seed Plant Prod. J. 29(1): 47-66. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Dadashi, N., and M.R. Khajehpour. 2004. Effect of planting date and cultivar on growth, yield and yield components of safflower in Isfahan. J. Sci. Technol. Agric. Nat. Resources. 8 (3): 14-27. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Donaldson, E., W.F. Schillinger, and M.D. Stephen. 2001. Straw production and grain yield relationships in winter wheat. Crop Sci. 41:100 106.

Duman, I. 2006. Effects of seed priming with PEG or K3P on Germination and seedling Growth in Lettuce. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 9(5): 923-928.

Fathi, G., S.A. Siadat, N. Rossbe, A.R. Abdali-Mashhadi, and F. Ebrahimpoor. 2001. Effect of planting date and seed density on yield components and grain yield of wheat cv. Dena in Yassoj conditions. J. Agric. Sci. Nat. Resources. 8(3): 23-31. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Flowers, M., C. James, S. Petrie, S. Machado, and K. Rhinhart. 2006. Planting date and seeding rate effects on the yield of winter and spring wheat varieties results from the 2005-2006 cropping year. Int. J. Agric. Res.12(2): 72-74.

Gilak Hakim Abadi, M., M.J. Sinaki, A. Dashtban, and A. Norinia. 2015. Effect of Organic Fertilizers and Date of Planting on Varieties of Vigna radiata in the Initial Growth Stage. J. Crop Ecophysiol. 60(4): 567-578.

Giri, G.S., and W.F. Schillinger. 2003. Seed priming winter wheat for germination, emergence and yield. Crop Sci. 43: 2135-2141.

Haj Mohammadnia Ghalibaf, K., H. Aliyari, K. Ghasemi Golazani, and S.A. Mohammadi. 2006. Review of growth and development three varieties of winter rapseed (Brassica napus L.) at different planting date. Agric. Sci.. 16(3): 83-95. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Hamada, A.M. 1998. Effects of exogenously added ascorb acid, thiamin or aspirin on photosynthesis and some related activities of drought-stressed wheat plants. p. 2581-2584. In: G. Garab (Ed.) Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and effects. 4th Edition.Academic Publishers Group, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Harris, D., A. Rashid, G. Miraj, M. Arif, and M. Yunas. 2008. On-farm seed priming with zinc in chickpea and wheat in Pakistan. Plant Soil. 306: 3-10.

Hotsonyame, G.K., and L.A. Hunt. 1997. Seeding date, photoperiod and nitrogen effects on specific leaf area of field-grown wheat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 78: 51-61.

Hunt, L.A., and S. pararajasingham. 1995. CROPSIM - WIIEAT: A model describing the growth and development of wheat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 75: 619-632.

Imam, Y., and M. Niknejat. 1994. An Introduction to Crop Physiology. Shiraz University Press, Shiraz, Iran. (In Persian).

Jafarnejad, A. 2009. Determination of optimum planting date for bread wheat cultivars with different flowering habit in Neishabour. Seed Plant Prod. J. 25-2(2): 117-135. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Jenkins, P.D., and M.H. Leich. 1986. Effect of sowing date on the growth and yield of winter oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.). J. Agric. Sci.105: 405-420.

Mahmoud, F., and M.A. Arain. 2003. Effect of planting dates on growth and yield of wheat at different elevations in Jebel Marra high lands under rain-fed conditions. Agric. Res. 4(13): 154-162.

Manarifard, M., and A. Sepehri, 2012. Effect of seed Priming and Foliar Application of Zinc on Yield and Yield Components of two wheat Cultivars. J. Sustainable Agric. Prod. Sci. 22(4.1): 151-165. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

McLeod, J.G., G.A. Compbell, F.B. Dyck and C.L. Vera. 1992. Optimum seeding date for winter wheat in southwestern Saskatchevan. Agron. J.84: 86-90.

Midmore, D. J., P.M. Cartwright, and R.A. Fischer. 1984. Wheat in tropical environments. II. Crop growth and grain yield. Field Crops Res. 8: 207–227.

Miralles, D.J., B.C. Ferro, and A.G. Slafer. 2001. Developmental responses to planting date in wheat, barley and rapeseed. Field Crop Res. 71: 211-223.

Momtazi, F., Y. Emam, and N.A. Karimian. 2005. Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield of Winter Wheat in Response to Planting Density and Sowing Date. J. Sci. Technol. Agric. Nat. Resources. 9(3): 143-159. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Moosavi, R., M.A. Abootalebian, A. Sepehri, and A. Mahdizadeh. 2012. Effects of on-Farm Seed Priming and Planting date on Seedling Emergence, Biological Yield and some Physiological Indices of Corn (S.C.260) in Hamedan. Iranian J. Field Crops Sci. 43(1): 39-49. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Musa, A.M., D. Harris, C. Johansen, and J.J. Kumar.2004. Short duration chick pea to replacefallow after amanrice, therole of on- farmseed priming in the High Bang ladesh. Exp. Agric.37: 509-521.

Najiyan Tabriz, A., A. Kashani, S.B. Mahmoodi, and S. Sadeghzadeh Hemayati. 2013. Effect of sowing date and seed rate on yield of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) trap crop. J. Agron. Plant Breed. 9(2): 87-97. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Pakmehr, A., M. Rastgoo, F. Shekari, J. Saba, and E. Zangani. 2011. Effects of seed treatment with salicylic acid on som morpho-physiological characteristics and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under water deficit. Iranian J. Field Crops Res. 9(4): 606-614.(In Persian, with English Abstract).

Paulsen, G.M. 1987. Wheat stand establishment. p. 384-389. In: E.G. Heyne (Ed.) Wheat and wheat improvement. 2nd edition. Agron. Monogr.13 .ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI, U.S.A.

Penning de vries, F.W.T., D.M. Jansen, H.F.M. Ten Berge, and A. Bakema. 1989. Simulation of ecological processesof several annual crops. Simulation monograph 29, Pudoc, Wageningen and International Rice Research Institue,Manila.

Qasim, M., M. Qamer, and M. Alam. 2008. Planting dates effect on yield and yield components of different wheat varieties. J. Agric. Res. 46(2): 279-285.   

Rahnama, A., A. Hashemi Dezfuli, and A. Bakhshandeh. 1998. Study of contribution of tiller in total dry matter and grain yield of wheat cultivars in different plant densities. Seed and Plant. 14(2): 8-19. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Ranjbar, Gh.H., and M.H. Banakar. 2013.The best planting date for wheat in saline and non-saline conditions of Yazd province based to grain yield and water use efficiency. Iranian WaterRes. J. 7(12): 121-129. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Salih, F.A. 1987. Effects of sowing date, irrigation, weed control, and method of planting on faba bean yield and its components in the Khartoum area of the Sudan. Shambat Research Station, Khartoum, North Sudan.

Satoo, T., and H.A.I. Madgwick. 1982. Forest Biomass. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Sharifi, H.R. 2001. Growth pattern and dry matter partitioning in dryland wheat cultivars. PhD dissertation, Faculty of Agricultural, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.(In Persian, with English Abstract).

Sharifi, H.R. 2016. Response of phenological development stages, grain yied and yield components of bread wheat cultivars with different growth habits to delayed planting.Seed Plant Prod. J. 32-2(1):21-44. (In Persian, with English Abstract).

Sial, M.A., M.A. Arian, S. Khanzada, M.H. Nagvi, M. Lemardahat, and N.A. Nizamani. 2005. Yield and quality parameters of wheat genotypes as affected by planting date and high temperature stress. Pakistan J. Bot. 37(3): 575-584.

Slafer, G.A., and Rawson, H.M. 1995. Photoperiod× Temperature interactions in contrasting wheat genotypes: time to heading and final leaf number. Field Crop Res. 44:73-83.

Solhaug, K.A. 1991. Influence of photoperiod and temperature on dry matter production and chlorophyll in temperate grasses. J. Agric. Sci. 5: 365–383.

Sreelatha, D., K.L. Rao, R. Veeraraghavaiah and M. Padmaja. 1997. Physiological variations in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars as affected by sowing dates. Agric. Res. 18: 111-114.

Srivastava, G.P., and V.C. Srivastava. 1996. Varieties and date of sowing of mung bean (Phaseolus radiata L.)in Bihar plateau. J. Res. Birsa Agric. Univ. 8: 17-19.

Tollenaar, M. 1989. Respons of dry matter accumulation in maiz to temperature; I. Dry matter portioning. Crop Sci. 29: 1239-1246.

Yarniya, M., V. Ahmadzadeh, A. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi, and N. Noori. 2008. Effect of priming and seed size and treated with tumbleweed extract on germination and growth of soybean. In: Proceedings of the First National Conference on Seed Science and Technology of Iran. 12-13 November 2008. University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources of Gorgan, Gorgan, Iran. (In Persian)

Zehtab Salmasi, S., A. Javanshir, R. Omid Beighi, H. Alyari, and K. Ghasemi. 2003. Ecophysiological effects of irrigation and planting date on growth, yield and yield components of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). Iranian J. Agric. Sci. 13(4): 37-43. (In Persian, with English Abstract).