ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی جمعیتهای مختلف شمشاد خزری برای حفاظت ex situ در بانک ژن منابع طبیعی ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 رئیس بانک ژن منابع طبیعی ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی بانک ژن منابع طبیعی ایران

3 کارشناس

چکیده

ارزیابی تعداد جمعیت لازم و کافی در برنامه جمع‌آوری بذر هر گونه گیاهی، نیازمند اطلاعات دقیقی در مورد تنوع و تمایز ژنتیکی گونه است. در این پژوهش تنوع و تمایز ژنتیکی 11 جمعیت شمشاد خزری (Buxus hyrcana Pojark) توسط ویژگیهای مورفولوژی و پروتئینهای ذخیره‌ای بذر مطالعه شد. نتایج نشان دادند که ویژگیهای مورفولوژیکی و پروتئینهای ذخیره‌ای بذر جمعیتهای مورد مطالعه تنوع قابل ملاحظه‌ای داشته ولی تنوع آنها از الگو جغرافیایی تبعیت نمی‌کنند. تجزیه و تحلیل خوشه‌ای UPGMA با استفاده از هر دو نشانگر مورفولوژی و پروتئینهای ذخیره‌ای بذر، نشان داد جمعیتهای دور از هم سمندکیش (گیلان) و بندرگز (گلستان) در یک گروه قرار گرفتند و برعکس جمعیتهای مجاور نمک آبرود1 و 2 در گروه‌های جداگانه‌ای قرار گرفتند. این نتایج می‌تواند ناشی از پدیده قطعه قطعه شدن جمعیتهای شمشاد باشد. بدین ترتیب جمع‌آوری انتخابی بذر، از بعضی جمعیتها می‌تواند باعث از دست رفتن برخی ژنها شده و ساختار ژنتیکی جمعیت‌ها را تغییر دهد که نشان دهنده اهمیت جمع‌آوری بذر از اکوتیپهای محلی است. به عبارت دیگر جمع‌آوری بذر صرفاً از یک جمعیت در هر منطقه اکوجغرافیایی کافی نیست و غالبا جمعیتهایی که حتی در یک منطقه اکوجغرافیایی قراردارند ممکن است ساختار ژنتیکی متفاوتی داشته باشند. این داده‌ها نشان می‌دهد که بانک ژن منابع طبیعی ایران برای جلوگیری از فرسایش ژنتیکی شمشاد، می‌بایست از تعداد جمعیت بیشتری در هر منطقه اکوجغرافیایی بذر جمع‌آوری نماید.

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