Akram-Ghaderi, F. 2008. The study of seed quality development, germination, longevity and deterioration in some medicinal plants: medicinal pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo. Convar. var. styriaca), cumin blank (Nigella sativa L.) andborago (Borago officinalis L.). Ph.D. Thesis, Gorgon. Univ. Agric. Sci. Nat. Res., 180p. (In Persian.).
Alvarado, V., and K.J. Bradford, 2002. A hydrothermal time model explains the cardinal temperature for seed germination. Plant Cell Environ. 25:1061-1069.
Asgarpour, R., S. Mijani, and R. Ghorbabi, 2014. Effect of temperature on germination rate of Russian thistle (Salsola kali L.) based on regression models. Journal of Plant Protection. 27: 476-483. (In Persian, with English Abstract.).
Bakhshandeh, E., R. Ghadiryan, S. Galeshi and E. Soltani, 2011. Modelling the effects water stress and temperature on seed germination of Soybean (Glycine max L.) and Velvetleaf (Abutilion thephrasti med.).J. Plant Prod. 18: 29-48 (In Persian, with English Abstract.).
Behshtian Mesgran, M., Rahimian Mashhadi, H. Alizadeh, H. Ohadi, S. and Zare, A. 2013. Modeling the germination responses of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and littleseed cannary Grass (Phalaris minor) to temperature. Iran. Weed Sci. 9: 105-118. (In Persian, with English Abstract.).
Bradford, K.J. 2002. Application of hydrothermal time to quantifying and modeling seed germination and dormancy. Weed Sci. 50: 248-260.
Dashti, M., M. Kafi, Tavakkoli, and M. Mirza, 2015. Cardinal temperatures for germination of Salvia leriifolia Benth. Herba Polonica. 61: 5-18.
Derakhshan, A., J. Gherekhloo, and E. Paravar, 2013. Estimation of cardinal temperatures and thermal time requirement for Cyperus difformis seed germination. Iran. J. Weed Sci. 9: 27-38. (In Persian, with English Abstract.).
Forcella, F., R.L. Benech-Arnold, R. Sanchez, and C.M. Ghersa, 2000. Modeling seedling emergence. Field Crops Res. 67: 123-139.
Ghaffari, R., F. Mighani, and H. Salimi, 2015. Germination ecophysiolology of mesquite weed (Prosopis farcta L.). Nova Biologica Reperta. 1: 23-33.
Ghanbari, A., S. Mijani, and R. Hosainabadi, 2012. Investigation of salinity and osmotic stress on seed germination of Lepyrodiclis and germination recovery after salinity stress. 4th Iranian Weed Science Congress, Ahvaz, Iran.408-411. (In Persian, with English Abstract.).
Grzesik, M. and Z. Romanowska-Duda, 2014. Improvements in germination, growth, and metabolic activity of corn seedlings by grain conditioning and root application with Cyanobacteria and Microalgae. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 23(4): 1147-1153.
Hardegree, S.P. 2006. Predicting germination response to temperature. I. Cardinal temperature models and subpopulation-specific regression. Ann. Bot. 97, 1115–1125.
Hazar, D. and I. Baktir, 2012. Effect of temperatures, growing media and seed age on germination of Dianthus calocephalus boiss seeds. Acta Hortic. 937: 421-425.
ISTA (International Seed Testing Association), 2008. International rules for seed testing. Seed Sci. Technol. 24:155- 202.
Khalaj, H., I. Allahdadi, H. Iran Nejad, GH.A. Akbari, M. Min Bashi, and M.A. Baghsetani, 2012. Using nonlinear regression approach for prediction of cardinal temperature of canola and four common weeds. J. Agroecol. 1: 21-33. (In Persian, with English Abstract.).
Lashkari, A., P. Rezvani Moghdadm, and A. Amin Ghafori, 2014. Estimation of cardinal temperatures of (Echium amoenum) with application of regression mode. Iran. J. Field Crops Res. 12: 164-169. (In Persian, with English Abstract.).
Mijani, S., A. Ghanbari, M. Serajchi, and A.R. Dehgahn, 2012. Cardinal temperatures for germination of Lepyrodiclisholosteoides. 12th Iranian Crop Science congress. 4-6 September, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran. (In Persian, with English Abstract.).
Minbashi Moeeni, M. 2011. Preparation of weed species distribution of Iran wheat fields with GIS. Research Report, Iranian Research Institute Plant Protection (IRIPP). 300 Pp. (In Persian.).
Mwale, S.S., S.N. Azam-Ali, J.A. Clark, R.G. Bradley, and M.R. Chatha, 1994. Effect of temperature on the germination of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Seed Sci. Technol. 22: 565-576.
Ozdener, Y., and H.G. Kutbay, 2008. Effect of salinity and temperature on the germination of Spergularia marina seeds and ameliorating effect of ascorbic and salicylic acids. J. Environ Biol. 29: 959-964.
Parmoon, G.H., S.A. Mousavi, H. Akbari, and A. Ebadi, 2015. Quantifying cardinal temperatures and thermal time required for germination of Silybum marianum seed. The Crop J. 3: 145-151.
Piper, E.L., K.J. Boote, J.W. Jones, and S.S. Grimm, 1996. Comparison of two phenology models for predicting flowering and maturity date of soybean. Crop Sci. 36: 1606–1614.
Probert, R.J. 2000. The role of temperature in the regulation of seed dormancy and germination. In Seeds: The Ecology of Renege ration in Plant Communities (ed. M. Fenner), Pp. 261–292. CAB International, Wallingford.
SigmaPlot 12.5. software, Sigma Plot 2015 for Windows Version 12.5, SPSS Inc., 233 South Wacker Drive, 11thFloor, Chicago, IL 60606-6307.
Sohrabi, S., M.H. Rashed Mohassel, M. Nassiri Mahalati, and S.K. Mousavi, 2013. Determination of cardinal temperatures and effect of fluctuation temperature on tuberous root germination of invasive weed lesser celandine (Ranuculus ficaria).Iran. J. Field Crops Res. 10: 643-648. (In Persian, with English Abstract.).
Soltani, A., E. Zeinali. S. Galeshi, and N. Latifi, 2001. Genetic variation for and interrelationships among seed vigor traits in wheat from the Caspian Sea coast of Iran. Seed Sci. Technol. 29: 653-662. (In Persian, with English Abstract.).
Soltani, A., F. Ghaderi-Far, and E. Soltani, 2008. Application of germination in response to temperature and water potential in seed Science Research the first National Conference Sciences and Technology of seeds. Gorgon, Iran, 12-13 Nov. (In Persian, with English Abstract.).
Trudgill, D.L., G.R. Squire, and K. Thompson, 2000. A thermal time basis for comparing the germination requirements of some British herbaceous plants. New Phytol. 145: 107-114.
Wise, A.N. and L.K. Binning, 1987. Calculating the threshold temperature of development for weeds. Weed Sci. 35: 177-179.
Yan, W., and L.A. Hunt, 1999. An equation for modelling the temperature response of plants using only the cardinal temperatures. Ann. Bot. 84: 607-614.
Zhang, H., Y. Tian, and D. Zhou, 2015. A modified thermal time model quantifying germination response to temperature for C3 and C4 species in temperate grassland. Agric. 5: 412-426.