مکان یابی ژن های کنترل کننده سرعت و درصد جوانه زنی در آفتابگردان تحت شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه ارومیه، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه اصلاح و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی

2 دانشیار، دانشگاه ارومیه، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه اصلاح و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی

3 استادیار، دانشگاه مراغه،دانشکده کشاورزی،گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات

چکیده

تنش شوری از جمله عوامل محدود کننده رشد گیاهان می­باشد. به منظور بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف شوری بر صفات درصد و سرعت جوانه­زنی بذور آفتابگردان و تعیین مکان ژن­های کنترل­کننده صفات مذکور در ژنوم آفتابگردان، مطالعه­ای در قالب آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در گروه اصلاح و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی دانشگاه ارومیه به اجرا در آمد. عامل اول شامل 70 رگه درون­زاد نوترکیب آفتابگردان حاصل از تلاقی PAC2 (به عنوان والد مادری) و RHA266 (به عنوان والد پدری) به همراه والدین و عامل دوم سطوح مختلف تنش شوری شامل صفر، 2، 4، 6 و 8 دسی­زیمنس­بر­متر بودند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که بین سطوح مختلف شوری و رگه­ های خالص و برای هر دو صفت مورد مطالعه تفاوت معنی دار در سطح احتمال یک درصد وجود دارد و اثر متقابل رگه و شوری نیز معنی­دار است. وراثت­ پذیری برای درصد جوانه­ زنی 14 درصد و برای سرعت جوانه ­زنی 20 درصد برآورد شد. مکان­یابی ژن­ها با استفاده از نقشه پیوستگی شامل 221 نشانگر SSR/SNP با متوسط فاصله 7/44 سانتی­ مورگان بین نشانگرها انجام گرفت. در سطوح مختلف تنش شوری، برای صفت درصد جوانه ­زنی QTL 12  و برای صفت سرعت جوانه­ زنی 22 QTL شناسایی شد. درصد تغییرات فنوتیپی توجیه شده توسط QTL­ها برای صفات مورد مطالعه بین 2/04% تا 67/61% متغییر بود. در این مطالعه، QTLهای salt2.PG.13.1، salt2.PGS.2.1، salt2.GR.1.1، salt4.GR.9.1، salt6.GR.10.1 و salt8.GR.6.1 دارای بیشترین ضریب تغییرات فنوتیپی می­باشند. نتایج این تحقیق بیانگر وجود QTLهای غیر اختصاصی (هم مکان) برای صفات مورد مطالعه است که این امر اهمیت زیادی در به­ نژادی گیاهی داشته و گزینش همزمان چندین صفت را امکان­پذیر می­سازد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


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Abdi, N., R. Darvishzadeh, H. Hatami Maleki, P. Haddadi and A. Sarrafi. 2013. Identification of quantitative trait loci for relative water content and chlorophyll concentration traits in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture 100: 159-166.

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Haddadi, P., A. Ebrahimi, N.B. Langlade, B. Yazdi-Samadi, M. Berger, A. Calmon, M.R. Naghavi, P. Vincourt and A. Sarrafi. 2012. Genetic dissection of tocopherol and phytosterol in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower through QTL analysis and the candidate gene approach. Mol. Breed. 29: 717-729.

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Khan, M.M., M.J. Iqbal, M. Abbas, H. Reza, R. Waseem and A. Ali. 2004. Loss of vigour and viability in aged onion (Allium cepa L.) seed. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 6:708-711.

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Micic, Z., V. Hahn, E. Bauer, C.C. Schon, S.J. Knapp, S. Tang and A.E. Melchinger. 2004. QTL mapping of Sclerotinia midstalk-rot resistance in sunflower.Theor. Appl. Genet.109: 1474-1484.

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Abdi, N., R. Darvishzadeh, H. Hatami Maleki, P. Haddadi and A. Sarrafi. 2013. Identification of quantitative trait loci for relative water content and chlorophyll concentration traits in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture 100: 159-166.

Akbari Moghaddam, H., M. Galavi, A. Ghanbari and N. Panjehkeh. 2011. Salinity effects on seed germinationand seedling growth of bread wheat cultivars. Trakia J. Sci. 9: 43-50.

Allinne, C., P. Maury, A. Sarrafi and P. Grieu. 2009. Genetic control of physiological traits associated to low temperature growth in sunflower under early sowing conditions. Plant Sci. 177: 349-359.

Amouzadeh, M., R. Darvishzadeh, P. Haddadi, B. Aabdollahi Mandoulakani and Y. Rezaee Danesh. 2013. Genetic analysis of partial resistance to basal stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in sunflower. Genetika 3: 737-748.

Ashraf, M. and M.R. Foolad. 2013. Crop breeding for salt tolerance in the era of molecular markers and marker-assisted selection. Plant Breed. 132: 10-20.

Basten, C.J., B.S. Weir and Z.B. Zeng. 2002. QTL cartographer, version 1.16. Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University: Raleigh, NC, USA.

Bajji, M., J.M. Kinetand S. Lutts. 2002. Osmotic and ionic effects of NaCl on germination, early seedling growth,and ion content of Atriplex halimus (Chenopodiaceae). Can. J. Bot. 80: 297-304.

Bert, P.F., I. Jouan, D. Tourvieille de Labrouhe, F. Serre, P. Nicolas and F. Vear. 2002. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). 1. Characterisation of QTL involved in resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Diaporthe helianthi. Theor. Appl. Genet.105: 985-993.

Bert, P.F., I. Jouan,G. Dechamp-Guillaume, F. Serre, J. Philippon, P. Nicolas and F. Vear. 2004. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) 3. Characterisation of QTL involved in resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phoma macdonaldi. Theor. Appl. Genet.109: 865-874.

Bybordi, A. and J. Tabatabaei. 2009. Effect of salinity stress on germination and seedling properties in canola cultivars (Brassica napus L.). Not. Bot. Hortic. Agrobot. Cluj-Na. 37: 71-76.

Broumand Rezazadeh, Z. and A. Koochaki. 2005. Germination response of Ajowan, Fennel and Dill to osmotic potential of sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol 6000 in different temperature regimes. Iran. J. Field Crops Res. 320: 207-217. (In Persian, with English abstract).

Churchill, G.A. and R.W. Doerge. 1994. Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping. Genetics 138: 963-971.

Collard, B.C.Y., M.Z.Z. Jahufer, J.B. Brouwer and E.C.K. Pang. 2005. An introduction to markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and marker-assisted selection for crop improvement: The basic concepts. Euphytica 142: 169-196.

Collard, B.C.Y. and D.J. Mackill. 2008. Marker assisted selection: An approach for precision plant breeding in the twenty first century. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 363: 557-572.

Cui, K.H., S.B. Peng, Y.Z. Xing, C.G. Xu, S.B. Yu and Q. Zhang. 2002. Molecular dissection of seedling vigour and associated physiological traits in rice. Theor. Appl. Genet. 105: 745-753.

Darvishzadeh, R., S. Poormohammad Kiani, G. Dechamp-Guillaume, L. Gentzbittel and A. Sarrafi. 2007. Quantitative trait loci associated with isolate specific and isolate nonspecific partial resistance to Phoma macdonaldii in sunflower. Plant Pathol. 56: 855-861.

Davar, R., R. Darvishzadeh, A. Majd, Y. Gousta and A. Sarrafi. 2010. QTL mapping of partial resistance to basal stem rot in sunflower using recombinant inbred lines. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 49: 330-341.

Davar, R., A. Majd, R. Darvishzadeh and A. Sarrafi. 2011.Mapping quantitative trait loci for seedling vigour and development in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) using recombinant inbred line population. Plant Omics J. 4:418-427.

Ebrahimi, A. and A. Sarrafi. 2012. Genetic variability and identification of markers associated withgermination parameters in gamma-irradiation induced mutants of sunflower under water stress condition. Iran. J. Genet. Plant Breed. 1: 1-8.

Ghoulam, C. and K. Fares. 2001. Effect of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of sugar beet(Beta vulgaris L.). Seed Sci. Technol. 29: 357-364.

Haddadi, P., A. Ebrahimi, N.B. Langlade, B. Yazdi-Samadi, M. Berger, A. Calmon, M.R. Naghavi, P. Vincourt and A. Sarrafi. 2012. Genetic dissection of tocopherol and phytosterol in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower through QTL analysis and the candidate gene approach. Mol. Breed. 29: 717-729.

Hagghani, M., M. Saffari and A.A. Magsoudi-Moud. 2008. Effect of Different levels of NaCl salinity ongermination and seedling growth of safflower cultivars (Carthamus tinctorius L.). J. Agric. Sci. Nat. Res. 45: 449-458. (In Persian, with English abstract).

Huang, J. and R.E. Redmann. 1995. Salt tolerance of Hordeum and Brassica species during germination and early seedling growth. Can. J. Plant Sci. 75: 815-819.

Hussain, S.A., J. Akhtar, M. Anwar-ul-haq and R. Ahmad. 2011. Growth, yield and ionic concentration of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes exposed to brackish water irrigation. Soil & Environment 30: 58-65.

Jamil, M., D.B. Lee, K.Y. Jung, M. Ashraf, S.C. Lee and E.S. Rha. 2006. Effec of salt (NaCl) stress ongermination and early seedling growth of four vegetables species. J. Cent. Eur. Agric. 7: 273-282.

Khajehpour, M.R. 2006. Industrial crops, Second edition. JihadAcademic Press. Ind. Univ.of Esfahhan, 250p. (In Persian).

Kearsey, M.J. and H.S. Pooni. 1996. The Genetical Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Chapman & Hall, London.

Khan, M.A. and S. Gulzar. 2003. Germination responses of Sporobolus ioclados: A saline desert grass. J.Arid. Environ.55: 453-464.

Khan, M.M., M.J. Iqbal, M. Abbas, H. Reza, R. Waseem and A. Ali. 2004. Loss of vigour and viability in aged onion (Allium cepa L.) seed. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 6:708-711.

Khan, M.S. 2011. Role of sodium and hydrogen (Na+/H+) antiporters in salt tolerance of plants: present and future challenges. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10: 13693-13704.

Micic, Z., V. Hahn, E. Bauer, C.C. Schon, S.J. Knapp, S. Tang and A.E. Melchinger. 2004. QTL mapping of Sclerotinia midstalk-rot resistance in sunflower.Theor. Appl. Genet.109: 1474-1484.

Mir Mohammadi Meybodi, A. and B. Ghareyazi. 2002. Physiologic and Breeding aspects of salt stress. Esfahan University of Technology Press. Esfahan, Iran. 274p. (In Persian, with English abstract).

Mohammed, E.l.M., M. Benbella and A. Talouizete. 2002. Effect of sodium chloride on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed germination. Helia 25: 51-58.

Mokrani, L., L. Gentzbittel, F. Ananza, L. Fitamant, G. Rachid Al Chaarani and A. Sarrafi. 2002. Mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci for grain oil content and agronomic traits using AFLP and SSR in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theor. Appl. Genet.106: 149-156.

Munns, R. 2005. Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together. New Phytol. 167: 645-663.

Peres-Vich, B., J.M. Fernandes-Martinez, M. Grondona, S.J. Knapp and S.T. Berry. 2002. Stearoyl-ACP and oleoyl-PC desaturase genes cosegregate with quantitative trait loci underlying high stearic and high oleic acid mutant phenotypes in Sunflower. Theor. Appl. Genet.104: 338-349.

Peres-Vich, B., S.J. Knapp, A.J. Leon, J.M. Fernandes-Martinez and S.T. Berry. 2004a. Mapping minor QTL for increased stearic acid content in Sunflower seed oil. Mol. Breed. 13: 313-322.

Peres-Vich, B., B. Akhtoach, S.J. Knapp, A.J. Leon, L. Vlascom, J.M. Fernandes-Martinez and S.T. Berry. 2004b. Quantitative trait loci for broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) resistance in sunflower.Theor. Appl. Genet.109: 92-102.

Poormohammad Kiani, S., P. Talia, P. Maury, P. Grieu, R. Heinz, A. Perrault, V. Nishinakamasu, E. Hopp, L. Gentzbittel, N. Panieg and A. Sarrafi. 2007a. Genetic analysis of plant water status and osmotic adjustment in recombinant inbred lines of sunflower under two water treatments. Plant Sci. 172: 773-787.

Poormohammad Kiani, S., P. Grieu, P. Maury, T. Hewezi, L. Gentzbittel and A. Sarrafi. 2007b. Genetic variability for physiological traits under drought conditions and differential expression of water stress-associated genes in sunflower (Helianthus annulus L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 114: 193-207.

Poormohammad Kiani, S., P. Maury, A. Sarrafi and P. Grieu. 2008. QTL analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. Plant Sci. 175: 565-573.

Poormohammad Kiani, S., P. Maury, L. Nouri, N. Ykhlef, P. Grieu and A. Sarrafi. 2009. QTL analysis of yield-related traits in sunflower under different water treatments. Plant Breeding 128: 363-373.

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