Abdul-Baki, A. A. and J. D. Anderson. 1973. Vigor determination in soybean by multiple criteria. Crop
Sci. 13, 630-633.
Bewley, J.D. and M. Black. 1994. Seeds physiology of development and germination. 2nd end. Plenum
Press, New York.
Borgan, J.C. 2006. Flame photometric determination of calcium in plants. J. Sci. Food Agric. 11: 446-449.
Canter, P.H., H. Thomas. and E. Ernst. 2005. Bringing medicinal plants into cultivation. Opportunities
and challenges for biotechnology. Trends Biotechnol. 23: 180-185.
De Lacerda, C. F., J. Cambraia, M. A. Oliva, H. A. Ruiz. and J. Tarquinio Prisco. 2003. Solute
accumulation and distribution during shoot and leaf development in two sorghum genotypes under salt stress.
Environ. Exp. Bot. 49: 107–120.
Diny, M., P. Babakhanlo, M. Mohamdi. and M. Golypor. 2003. Sources of Thistle manufacturer in
Tehran. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Rese. Iran. 12: 68-85. [In Persian].
Ehteshami Nia, A. 2001. Effects Salinity on components seedling growth of 10 medicinal plants.
Conference medicinal plants. Tehran, university shahed. p. 123[In Persian].
Ellis, R. H. and E. H. Roberts. 1981. The quantification of aging and survivial in orthodox seeds. Seed Sci.
Geilfus, C. M., C. Zorb. and H. K. Muhling. 2010. Salt stress differentially affects growth-mediating bexpansins
in resistant and sensitive maize (Zea mays L.). Plant Physiol. Biochem. 48:993-998.
Ghavami, N., H.A. Naghdy, A. A. Ramin. and A. Mehrafarin. 2011. Effect of salinity on seed yield and
oil mike thistle. J. Medicine. 2: 89-93. [In Persian]
Hosseini Nia, A. and M. Shenvaye. 2004. Optical spectra of different osmotic potentials of salinity and
drought on seed germination characteristics of herbs chicory. Sixth National Conference on New Ideas in
Agriculture. Khorasgan. [In Persian]
Jamil, M., D. B. Lee, K. Y. Jung, M. Ashraf, S. C. Lee. and E. S. Rha. 2006. Effect of salt (NaCl) stress
on germination and early seedling growth of four vegetables species. J. Central Euro. Agric. 7:273-282.
Janks M. A. and P. M. Hasegawa. 2007. Plant Abiotic Stresses. Third Published. Purdue University
Indiana, USA. pp: 37-44.
Khan, M.Z., R.E. Blackshaw. and K.B. Marwat. 2009. Biology of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) and
the management options for growers in north-western Pakistan. Weed Biol. Manage. 9: 99–105.
Koca, M., M. Bor, F. Ozdemir. and I. Turkan. 2007. The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation,
antioxidative enzymes and proline content of sesame cultivars. Environ. Experim. Bot. 60: 344-351.
Kren, V. and D. Walterova. 2005. Silibin and silymarin. New effects and applications. Biomed. Pap.149:
Lee, D. H., Y. S. Kim. and C. B. Lee. 2001. The inductive responses of the antioxidant enzymes by salt
stress in the rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Plant Phyiol. 158: 737–45.
Masomy Zvaryan, A., M. Yosefi Rad. and M.S. Moghadas. 2013. Effect of salt stress on germination
indices and alpha-amylase and peroxidase enzyme activity of medicinal plants mike thistle (Silybum
marianum). National Congress and Conventional Farming. Ardabil. [In Persian].
McDonald, M.B. 1999. Seed deterioration. Physiology, repair and assessment. Seed Sci. Technol. 27:177-
Mehdikhani, H. 2007. Effect of salinity on germination of herbs, Conference medicinal plants. Tehran,
university shahed. p.144. [In Persian].
Meloni, D. A., G. R. Marta, C. A. Martínez. and M. A. Oliva. 2004. The effects of salt stress on growth,
nitrate reduction and proline and glycine -betaine accumulation in Prosopis alba. Brazilian J. Plant Physiol.
Mer, R.K., P. K. Prajith, D.H. Pandya. and A. N. Dandey. 2000. Growth of young plants of Hordeum
vulgare, Triticum aestivum, Cicer arietium and Brassica juncea. J. Agron. Crop. Sci. 185: 209-217.
Munns, R. 2002. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant, Cell and Environ. 25: 239-250.
Munns, R. 2005. Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together. New Phytologist. 167: 645-663.
Nezamy, A., J. Nebaty, M. Kafie. and M. Mohseny. 2008. Evaluation of salt tolerance at germination and
seedling pushes under controlled conditions. J. Environm. Stree. Agricu Sci. 1: 69-77. [In Persian]
Ramasamy, K. and R. Agarwal. 2008. Multi targeted therapy of cancer by silymarin. Cancer Lett. 269:
Rehman, S., P. J. C. Harris, W. F. Bourne. and J. Wikin. 1997. The effect of sodium chloride on
germination and the potassium and calcium contents of Acacia seeds. Seed Science and Technology. 25: 45-
Sayed Sharif, R. 2007. Investigate the effect of salinity on germination index figures mike thistle.
Conference medicinal plants. Tehran, university shahed. p. 207 [In Persian]
Sedghi, M., A. Nemati, B. Amanpour-Balaneji, and A. Gholipouri. 2010. Influence of Different Priming
Materials on Germination and Seedling Establishment of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) under Salinity
Stress. World Applied Sci. J. 11: 604-609, 2010
Shaker, E., H. Mahmoud. and S. Mnaa. 2010. Silymarin, the antioxidant component and Silybum
marianum extracts prevent liver damage. Food Chem. Toxicol. 48: 803-806.
Shariatmadari, M.H., M. Glbashe, M. Shoaa Hosseini, M. Jamali Rafsanjan. and R.K. Zamany Tahan.
2009. Effects of different levels of salinity (NaCl) on seed germination and seedling growth of Fleawort.
Conference on Water Science, Soil, Plant and agricultural mechanization .Dezful. [In Persian]
Soltani, A., B. Camcar, S. Galeshy. and F. Akram Ghadery. 2008. Drain seeds and seed -aging effects on
the growth of wheat seedlings. J. Agric. and Natural Reso. 15: 24-36[In Persian]
Yazdani Buick, R., P. Rezvani Moghaddam, H.R. Khazaei, R. Ghorbany. and A. Astaray. 2010. Effects
of drought and salinity stress on seed germination, mike thistle, Iranian J. Field Crop Rese. 8: 12-19. [In