تأثیر دور آبیاری و سطوح مختلف نیتروژن بر تغذیه گیاه والد و بنیه بذر و برخی صفات مرتبط دورگ سینگل کراس704 درکرمانشاه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری زراعت- اکولوژی، گیاهان زراعی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تاکستان

2 استاد پژوهش مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر- کرج

3 استادیار پژوهش مؤسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال –کرج

4 دانشیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تاکستان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر دور آبیاری و تغذیه گیاه والد با مقادیر مختلف نیتروژن بر بنیـه بـذر و گیاهچـه و برخـی ویژگـی هـای مـرتبط ذرت
دورگ سینگل کراس704) MO17× B73 ، (پژوهشی در مزرعه ایستگاه تحقیقاتی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشـاه
و آزمایشگاه تجزیه کیفی بذر مؤسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال کرج انجام گردید. آزمایش مزرعهای بر پایه طرح بلوکهای کامـل
تصادفی و بهصورت کرتهای خرد شده با 3 تکرار انجام شد. سطوح تیمارهای مورد بررسی بهصورت دورهای آبیاری7 ،11،9 و 13 روز بـه -
عنوان عامل اصلی و میزانهای نیتروژن 200 ،300 ،400 و 500 کیلوگرم در هکتار بهعنوان عامل فرعی مرتب شدند. وزن هزار بذر تعیین شـده
وآزمونهای بنیه بذر و گیاهچه شامل تجزیه و تحلیل رشد گیاهچه، سرعت خروج رادیکل(ریشهچه) و هدایت الکتریکی برپایه طـرح بلـوک -
های کامل تصادفی و بهصورت فاکتوریل با 4 تکرار اجرا گردیدند و درصد جوانهزنی نهایی، گیاهچههـای عـادی و غیرعـادی ، متوسـط زمـان
جوانهزنی، طول گیاهچه و ریشهچه، وزنتر گیاهچه و ریشهچه، وزن خشک گیاهچه، ریشهچه و ساقهچه و شـاخص هـای طـولی و وزنـی بنیـه
گیاهچه و هدایت الکتریکی اندازهگیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد بذرهای تولید شده در شـرایط دور آبیـاری 7 و9 روز و میـزان 400 کیلـوگرم در
هکتار نیتروژن ازنظر بنیه بذر و گیاهچه برخی صفات مرتبط از مطلوبترین وضعیت برخوردار بودند. از این رو، براساس نتایج این تحقیق و به
علت محدودیت منابع آبی برای آبیاری شرایط دور آبیاری9 روزه و مصرف400 کیلـوگرم نیتـروژن در هکتـار بـرای تولیـد بـذ ر ذرت دورگ
سینگل کراس704 در شرایط کرمانشاه توصیه میگردد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abdul-Baki, A.A. and J.D. Anderson. 1973. Vigor determination in soybean by multiple criteria. Crop Sci.
13: 630-633.
Abdoli, M. and M. Saeidi. 2012. Effects of water deficiency stress during seed growth on yield and its
components, germination and seedling growth parameters of some wheat cultivars. Int. J. Agric. Crop Sci.
4(15): 1110-1118.
 Anonymus, 2012. Agricuture statistics, first volume-horticultural and field crops, 2010-11 crop year. Information
and Communication Technology Center of Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture.
Anonymous, 2013. FAO statistical yearbook, world food and agriculture Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations. Rome, Italy.
Anonumous, 2014. International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association(ISTA), Zurich,
Switzerland.
 Babakhaani, S., M., Nasri and M. Oveysi. 2013. Effect of cytokine hormone spray and water stress on the yield
and yield components of corn (Zea mays var. saccharata.). Ann. Biol. Res. 4 (4):130-133.
Badrooj, H.R., A. Hamidi, and H Shirani. 2010. Evaluation of seed germination rates under accelerated aging
conditions after exposition of spring cultivars of canola to drought stress. The third international conference on
oilseeds and edible oils, Tehran, Center for Coordination Science and Technology of Oilseeds.
 Baskin, C.C. and J.M. Baskin. 1998. Seeds – Ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination.
Academic Press, San Diego, 666 pp.
 Bhaskaran, M. and P. Murugesaboopathy. 2006.Tackling soil problems for seed production. In: Advances in seed
science and technology: vol.I: Recent trends in seed technology and management, pp: 377-392. by: Vanagamudi, K.,
Natarajan, K., Umarani, R., Natarajan, N., Bharati, A. and Sarvanana, T.(eds.), Agrobios, India.
 Bidinger, F.R., V. Mahalakshmi and G.D.P. , Rao. 1987. Assessment of drought resistance in pearl millet
Pennisetum americanum L. Leeke I Factors affecting yields under stress .II. Estimation of genotype response to
stress. Agric Res. 38:37-48-49-59.
Boyer, J.S. 1982. Plant productivity and environment. Science. 218: 443-448.
Boyer J. S. and M. E. Westgate. 2004. Grain yields with limited water. J. Exp. Bot. 55:2385- 2394.
Brenner, M.L. 1990. The role of hormone in photosynthate partitioning and seed filling. In: Plant hormones and
their role in plant growth and their role in plant growth and development, By: Davis, P.J.(ed.), pp: 4741-493.
Kulwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
Briggs, D. and F.M. Courtrey. 1991. Agriculture and environment, the physical geography of temperate
agricultural systems. Longman and Scientific and Technical Publication, Singapore.
Chaoukan, R. 2004. Maize seed production. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Agricultural Research, Education and
Organization.
Dell’Aquila, A., 1994. Wheat seed ageing and embryo protein degradation. Seed Sci. Res. 4:.293-298, 1994.
Dhanda S. S., G.S., Sethi and R.K. Behl, 2004. Indices of drought tolerance in wheat genotypes at early stages
of plant growth. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 190: 6-12.
Dornbos, D.L., R.E. Mullen and R.M. Shibles,. 1989. Drought stress effects during seed fill on soybean seed
germination and vigor. Crop Sci. 29: 476-480.
Ellis, R.H. and E.H. Roberts. 1981. The quantification of ageing and survivial in orthodox seeds. Seed Sci. Technol.
9:377-409.
Ferguson, J.M., D.M.TeKrony and D.B. Egli. 1990. Changes during early soybean seed and axes deterioration: II.
Lipids. Crop Sci. 30: 179-182.
Galanopoulou, M., M. Falcinelli and F. Lorenzetti. 1996. General agronomic aspects of seed productin. In: Seed
science and technology, By: Van Gastel, A.J.G., Pagnotta, D.M., and Porceddu ,E. pp: 175-188, ICARDA, Aleppo,
Syria.
George, R.A.T. 2011. Vegetable seed production(3rd Ed.). CAB International.
 
Goulas C. and M. Galanopoulou. 1996. Seed production of industrial crops including maize. In: Seed science and
technology, By:Van Gastel, A.J.G., Pagnotta, D.M., and Porceddu, E. pp: 201-30, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.
Gutterman, Y. 2000. Maternal effects on seeds during development. In: The ecology of regeneration in plant
communities, (2nd. ed.), By: Fenner, M. (Ed.), pp: 59-84. CAB International Seeds:
Hamidi, H. and A. Safarnezhad. 2000.Selecting for drought tolerant cultivation alfalfa using tissue culture
techniques. Proceedings of the National Biotechnology Congress of Iran. Agricultural Biotechnology Research
Institute, Karaj.
Hampton, J. G. and D.M. TeKrony. 1995. Handbook of vigour test methods (3rd. Ed.). International Seed
Testing Association (ISTA). Zurich, Switzerland
Heikal M. M., M.A. Shaddad and A.M. Ahmed. 1981. Effect of water stress and gibberellic acid on
germination of flax, sesame and onion seed. Biol. Plantarum. 24: 124-129.
Hobbs, E.H. and H.H. Muendel. 1983. Water requiremements of irrigated soybeans in southern Alberta.Can. J.
Plant. Sci.,63:855-860.
Hourche, R. 2002. Use of molecular markers for drought tolerance. Workshop drought stress in plants. Faculty
of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
Jajarmi, V. 2013. Effects of drought stress on germination indices of seven varieties of wheat. J. Agric. Plant
Breed. 8(4): 192-183.
Jamshidi, M., A. Danesh Shahraki and G.H. Fathi. 2013. Effects of water stress and nitrogen application rate
on seed vigor canola Hyola401, the National Conference of Seed Science and Technology, Mashhad, Islamic
Azad University of Mashhad branch.
Khajeh-Hosseini, M., A. Lomholt and S.Matthews. 2009. Mean germination time in the laboratory estimates the
relative vigour and field performance of commercial lots of maize. Seed Sci. Technol. 37: 446-459.
Khan, A. A. 1994. ACC-derived ethylene production, a sensitive test for seed vigor. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci.
119:1083-1119.
Knowles, T.C., T.A. Dooerge, and M.J. Ottman. 1991. Improved nitrogen management in irrigated durum
wheat using stem nitrate analysis: II. Interception of nitrate-N contents. Agron. J. 83: 353-6.
Mansfield, T. A. 1990. Hormones as regulators of water balance, In: Plant hormones and their role in plant
growth and their role in plant growth and development, By: Davis, P.J.(ed.), pp: 411-430. Kulwer Academic
Publishers, The Netherlands.
Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants(2nd. Ed.). Academic Press.
Matthews, S., E. Beltrami, R. El-Khadem, M. Khajeh Hosseini, M. Nasehzadeh and G.Urso. 2011. Evidence
that time for repair during early germination leads to vigour differences in maize. Seed Sci. Technol. 39: 501-509.
Matilla, A.J. 2000. Ethylene in seed formation. Seed Sci. Res. 10:111-126.
Pollock, B.M. and E. Ross, 1972. Seed and seedling vigour. In: Kozlowski, T.T. (Ed). Seed biology, Vol. 1, pp: 314-
387, Academic Press.
Mihailović, N., G. Jelić, R. Filipović, M. Djurdjević and Ž. Dželetović. 1992. Effect of nitrogen form on maize
response to drought stress. Plant and Soil. 144:191-197.
Olson, R.A. and D.H. Sander. 1988. Corn production, In: Corn and corn improvement(3 rd. ed.), By: Sprague, G.F.
and Dudley, J.W.(eds.), pp: 639-676, Agronomy Monograph No. 18. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison ,WI, U.S.A.
Priestley, D.A., 1986. Seed Ageing. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NewYork.
Rahimiyan Mashhadi, H. and A. Bagheri. 1991. Effect of different concentration of polyethylene glycol and
NaCl under different temperature on germination of rain fed wheat cultivation. J. Agric. Ind. 5: 45-36.
Ramamoorthy, K. 2006. Importance of vigor tests in seed quality. In: Advances in seed science and technology:
vol.I: Recent trends in seed technology and management, pp: 543-553. Agrobios, India.
Ramamoorthy, K. 2006. Importance of vigour tests in seed quality. In: Advances in seed science and
technology. I: Recent trends in seed technology and management. pp: 543-553. Agrobios, India.
Ratajczak, K. and K.W. Duczmal. 1991. Seed vigor estimation by the conductometeric test, Katedra
Nasiennictwa I Szkolkarstwa Orgodniczego, AR, Poznan, Poland Biuletyn-Instytutu-Hodowali-i-AklimatyzacjiRozlin,
180:181-188.
Reed, A.J., G.W. Sigletay, J.R. Schussler, D.R. Williamson and A.L. Christy. 1999. Shading effects on dry matter
nitrogen partitioning Kernel number , and yield of maize. Crop Sci. 28: 819-825.
Schussler, J.R., M. L. Brenner and W. A. Brun. 1984. Abscisic acid and its relationship to seed filling in soybeans.
Plant Physiol. 76: 301-306.
Safontas, J.E. and J.C. Dipaola. 1985. Drip irrigation of maize . In proc. of the 3 rd Int . Drip/ Trickle Irrigation
Congress 2:575-578. St. Joseph, Mich:ASAE.
Saraswathy, S. and C. Dharmaingam. 1992. Mother crop nutrition influencing seed quality of mustard (Brassica
juncea) grown in the western tract of Tamil Nadu. Seed Research 20: 88-91.
Scott, S.J., R.A. Jones and W.A. Williams. 1984. Review of data analysis methods for seed germination. Crop
Sci.24: 1192-1199.
 
Sawan, Z. M., B. R. Greeg, and S. E. Yousef. 1998. Influence of nitrogen fertilisation and foliar-applied of p;ant
growth retardants and zinc on cotton seed yield, viability and seedling vigour. Seed Sci. Technol. 26: 393-404.
Sawan, Z. M., B. R. Greeg and S. E. Yousef. 1999. Effect of phosphorus, chelated zinc and calcium on cotton seed
yield, viability and seedling vigor. Seed Sci. Technol. 27: 329-338.
Sen S. and Osborae, D.J. 1977. Decline in ribonucleic acid and protein synthesis with loss of viability during the
early houres of imbibition of rye (Secale cereale L.) embryos. Biochem. J. 166: 33-38.
Steiner, J.J. 1990. Seed physiology, production and technology. Crop Sci. 30:1264-1271.
Tollenaar, M. 1977. Sink- relationships during reproductive development in Maize, A review. Maydica XXB :49-75.
Van Gastel, A.J. and M. A. Pagnotta. 1996. Seed science and technology. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.
Vanangamudi, K., A. Bharathi, P. Natesan, M. Bhaskaran and G. Sasthri. 2006.Current scenario of seed coating
polymer. In: Advances in Seed Science and Technology: Vol.I: Recent Trends in Seeed Technology and Management,
Pp:255-264. by: Vanagamudi, K., Natarajan, K., Umarani, R., Natarajan, N., Bharati, A. and Sarvanana, T.(eds.),
Agrobios, India.
Vieira, R.D., D.M. TeKrony and D.B. Egli. 1992. Effect of drought and defoliation stress in the field of soybean
seed germination and vigor. Crop Sci. 32: 471-475.
Warraich, E.A., S.M.A. Basra, N. Ahmad, R.Ahmed and M. Aftab. 2002. Effect of nitrogen on grain
quality and vigour in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Int. J. Agric. Biol. 4(4): 517-520.
Welch, R. M. 1986. Effect of nutrition deficiencies on seed production and quality. Adv. Plant Nutr. 2:205-
247.
Wych, R. D. 1988. Production of hybrid seed corn. pp. 565-605. In: Sprague, G. F., and Dudley, J. W. (eds.).Corn and
Corn Improvment, 3rded. Agronomy Monograph No. 18. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison ,WI, U.S.A.
Zakaria, M.S., H.F. Ashraf and E.Y. Serag. 2009. Direct and residual effects of nitrogen
fertilization, foliar application of potassium and plant growthretardant on Egyptian cotton growth, seed yield, seed
viability and seedling vigor. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 29: 116-123.