تاثیر پرایمینگ بذر با آب و مقادیر مختلف سلنیوم بر خصوصیات جوانه زنی، رشد گیاهچه و عملکرد بذر گندم دیم در شرایط آزمایشگاه و مزرعه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران.

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران

3 باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران.

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر تیمار های مختلف پرایمینگ بر خصوصیات جوانه زنی و عملکرد بذر گندم، آزمایشی در سه تکرار در سال 1393 در آزمایشگاه و مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اراک اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی در آزمایشگاه شامل شاهد، پرایمینگ با آب مقطر، پرایمینگ با مقادیر 1 ، 2  و 3 میلی­گرم در لیتر سلنیوم  بصورت طرح کاملاً تصادفی و در شرایط مزرعه از تیمارهای فوق توام با محلول­پاشی بصورت طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که کمترین متوسط زمان جوانه زنی معادل 2/62 روز از پرایمینگ با 1 میلی­گرم در لیتر سلنیوم حاصل شد. پرایمینگ با آب مقطر و پرایمینگ با 1 ،2 و 3   میلی­گرم در لیتر سلنیوم، طول گیاهچه را نسبت به شاهد به ترتیب به میزان 28/5، 54/4 ، 49/1 و 48/5 درصد افزایش داد. پرایمینگ با 3 میلی­گرم در لیتر سلنیوم شاخص طولی بنیه گیاهچه را نسبت به شاهد به میزان 1/6 برابر افزایش داد. پرایمینگ با 3 میلی­گرم در لیتر سلنیوم وزن خشک ساقه چه و ریشه چه را  نسبت به شاهد به ترتیب 44/4 و  46/5 درصد افزایش داد. پرایمینگ با 1 میلی­گرم در لیتر سلنیوم میزان کلروفیلb  را نسبت به شاهد 19/3 درصد افزایش داد. نتایج نشان داد که پرایمینگ  با 1 و 2 میلی­گرم در لیتر سلنیوم توام با محلول­پاشی سلنیوم و همچنین پیش تیمار با آب مقطر توام با محلول­پاشی سلنیوم، عملکرد بذر را به ترتیب به میزان 16/7، 19 و 17/9 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد. نتایج کلی این آزمایش نشان داد از طریق پیش تیمار بذر با مقادیر کم سلنیوم توام با محلول­پاشی سلنیوم می­تواند به عملکرد مطلوب گندم در شرایط دیم دست یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Afzal.  I., N. Aslam,  F. Mahmood,  A. Hameed,   S. Irfan  and  G.  Ahmad.  2006.  Enhancement of  germination and emergence of canola seeds by different priming Techniques. Cademo de pesquisa  Ser Bio.  16: 19-34.

Afzal, I.,  S. M. A. Basra, M. Farooq and A. Nawaz. 2006. Alleviation of salinity stress in spring wheat by hormonal spring wheat by hormonal priming with ABA, salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8: 23-28.

Arnon, D. I. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplast oxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant physiol. 24:1-15.

Arzadún, M. J.,  J. I. Arroquy,  H. E. Laborde, and R. E. Brevedan, 2006. Effect of planting date, clipping height, and cultivar on forage and grain yield of winter wheat in Argentinean Pampas. Agron. J.  98:1274–1279.

Basra, S. M. A., I. A. Pannu, and  I. Afzal. 2003. Evaluation of seed vigor of hydro and matriprimed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 5: 121-123.

Bailly, C., A. Benamar, F. Corbinean, and D. Come. 2000. Antioxidant systems in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seeds as affected by priming. Seed Sci. Res. 10: 35-42.

Braccini, A. L. E., M. S. Reis, M. A. Moreira, C. S. Sediyama and C. A. Scapim. 2000. Biochemical changes associated to soybean seeds osmoconditioning during storage. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira. 35: 433-447.

Chen, C. C. and J. M. Sung. 2001. Priming bitter gourd seeds with selenium solution enhanced germinability and antioxidative responses under sub-optimal temperature. Physiologia Plantarum. 111:9- 16.

Djanaguiraman, M., D. D. Devi, A. K. Shanker, A. Sheeba, and U. Bangarusamy. 2005. Selenium - an antioxidative protectant in soybean during senescence. Plant and Soil. 272: 77- 86.

Hajiboland, R., and L. Amjad. 2007. Does antioxidant capacity of leaves play a role in growth response to selenium  at different sulfur nutritional status? Plant Soil Environ. 53:207–215.

Hartikainen, H., P. Ekholm, V. Piironen, T. Xue, T. Koivu, and M. Yli-Halla. 1997. Quality of the ryegrass and lettuce yields as affected by selenium fertilization. Agric. Food Sci. Finland. 6:381- 387.

Hartikainen H, T. Xue, and V. Piironen. 2000. Selenium as an anti-oxidant and pro-oxidant in ryegrass. Plant and Soil. 225: 193- 200.

Harris, D., B. S. Raghuwanshi, J. S. Gangwar, S. C. Singh, K. D. Joshi, A. Rashid and P. A. Hollington.  2001. Participatory evaluation by farmer of on-farm seed priming in wheat in India, Nepal,  and Pakistan.  Exp. Agric. 37:403-415.

Hosinikhah, F. S., S. Parsa, R. Tavakol Afshari and A. R. Esmaieli. 2013. Effect vitamin c and vitamin E on seed detrioration prosses of two cultivar  seasam.  Iranian J.  Seed Sci.  Technol. 2: 83-100.  

Ellis, R.H., and E.H. Roberts. 1981. The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seed. Seed Sci.  Technol. 9: 373-409.

 Eisvand, H.R., and M.A. Alizadeh. 2002. Evaluation some physiological quality characters (percentage of  germination, speed of germination, and vigor index) of Dracocephalum moldavica L. by accelerated aging test. Iranian Rangelands and Forest Plant Breed. and Gen. Res. 11: 249-256.

Judi, M. and F. Sharifzadeh. 2006. Effect of Hydropriming on cultivars barley. Biaban magazine.11: 99-109.

Kaur, S., A. K. Gupta, and N. Kaur, 2003. Priming of chickpea seeds with water and mannitol overcomes the effect of salt stress on seedling growth. Int. Chickpea and Pigeonpea Newsl. 10: 18-20.

Kong, L., M. Wang, and D. Bi, 2005. Selenium modulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes, osmotic  homeostasis and promotes the growth of sorrel  seedlings under salt stress. Plant Growth Regulation. 45: 155 163.

 Kuznetsov, V., V. P.  Kidin, and V. Vladimir.  2004. Protective effect of selenium on wheat plant under drought stress. Am. Soc. Plant Biol. 24-28 July. Lake Buena Vista, FL USA.

Pennanen, A., T. Xue, and H. Hartikainen. 2002. Protective role of selenium in plant subjected to severe UV irradiation stress. J. Appl. Bot. 76: 66- 76.

Prins, 2011

Maguire, J. D. 1962. Speed of germination - aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and  vigour. Crop Sci. 2:176-177.

McDonald, M.B. 2000. Seed priming. In: M. Black and J. D. Bewley (eds.) Seed Technology and its Biological Basis, pp. 287-325. CRC Press, FL, USA.

Mehra, V., J. Tripathi and A.A. Powell. 2003. Aerated hydration treatment improves the response of brassica juncea and Brassica campestris seeds to stress during germination. Seed Sci. Technol. 31: 57-70.

Murungu,  F. S., C. Chiduza, P. Nyamugafat, L.J. Clark,  W.R., Whalley, and W.E.  Finch-Savage. 2004. Effects of ‘on-farm seed priming’ on consecutive daily sowing occasions on the emergence and growth  of maize in semi-arid Zimbabwe. Field Crops Res. 89: 49-57.

Navaz, F., M.Y.  Ashraf, R. Ahmad, and E. A. Waraich. 2013. Selenium (Se) Seed priming induced growth and biochemical changes in wheat under water deficit conditions. Biol.Trace Element. Res. 151: 284-293.

Sajedi, N. A., and E,  gholinezhad. 2012. Response of yield and  yield components of rainfed wheat cultivars to salicylic acid and selenium. Iranian J. Field Crops Res. 10: 614-621.

Sharifzadeh, F., H. Heidari Zolleh, H. Mohamadi and M. Janmohamadi. 2006.  Study of Osmotic  Priming Effects on Wheat (Triticum aestivum) germination in different temperatures and local seed Masses. J. Agron. 5: 647-657.

Padmaja, K., D. K. K. Prasad, and A. R. K. Prasad. 1989. Effect of selenium on chlorophyll biosynthesis in mung bean seedling. Phytochemistry. 28:3321 3324.

Preedy ., V. et al. 2011. Nutsand seeds in health and disease prevention. Academic Press. pp. 960–967.

Rabieian, A., M. Jiriaie and A. Aynaband. 2014.  Effects of selenium in decreasing effects of salinity negative and seed low storage in germination of Rice.  Environ. stress crop Sci. 7:53-63.

Ramos, S. J.,  V. Faquin,  L. R. G. Guilherme,  E. M. Castro, F.W. Avila, G. S. Carvalho,  C.E.A. Bastos, C. Oliveira. 2010. Selenium biofortification and antioxidant activity in lettuce  plants fed with selenate and selenite. Plant Soil Environ. 56: 584-588.

Rotruck, J.T., A. L. Pope, H. E. Ganther and W. G. Hoekstra.1973. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. 179: 588-590.

Rudrapal, D. and R.N. Basu. 2004. The role of initial seed vigour status in the expression effect of wet and dry seed treatment in french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Seed Sci. Technol. 32: 205-212.

Timothy, P. 2001. Glutation-related enzymes and selenium status: implications for oxidative stress-Biochem, Pharm. 62: 237-281.

Xiaoqin, Y., C. Jianzhou and W. Guangyin. 2009. Effects of drought stress and selenium supply on growth and physiological characteristics of wheat seedlings.Acta Physiol. Plant. 31:1031-1036.

Yao, X. Q., J. Z. Chu and G.Y. Wang.. 2009. Effects of selenium on Wheat seedlings under Drought Stress. Biol.Trace Elem. Res. 130: 283–290.

Yao, X., J. Chu, X. He, and C. Ba. 2011. Protective Role of selenium in Wheat seedlings Subjected to Enhanced UVB Radiation. Russian. J. Plant Physiol. 58: 283–289.

Afzal.  I., N. Aslam,  F. Mahmood,  A. Hameed,   S. Irfan  and  G.  Ahmad.  2006.  Enhancement of germination and emergence of canola seeds by different priming Techniques. Cademo de pesquisa  Ser Bio.  16: 19-34.

Afzal, I.,  S. M. A. Basra, M. Farooq and A. Nawaz. 2006. Alleviation of salinity stress in spring wheat by hormonal spring wheat by hormonal priming with ABA, salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8: 23-28.

Arnon, D. I. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplast oxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant physiol. 24:1-15.

Arzadún, M. J.,  J. I. Arroquy,  H. E. Laborde, and R. E. Brevedan, 2006. Effect of planting date, clipping height, and cultivar on forage and grain yield of winter wheat in Argentinean Pampas. Agron. J.  98:1274–1279.

Basra, S. M. A., I. A. Pannu, and  I. Afzal. 2003. Evaluation of seed vigor of hydro and matriprimed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 5: 121-123.

Bailly, C., A. Benamar, F. Corbinean, and D. Come. 2000. Antioxidant systems in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seeds as affected by priming. Seed Sci. Res. 10: 35-42.

Braccini, A.L.E., M.S. Reis, M.A. Moreira, C.S. Sediyama and C.A. Scapim. 2000. Biochemical changes associated to soybean seeds osmoconditioning during storage. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira. 35: 433-447.

Chen, C. C. and J. M. Sung. 2001. Priming bitter gourd seeds with selenium solution enhanced germinability and antioxidative responses under sub-optimal temperature. Physiologia Plantarum. 111:9- 16.

Djanaguiraman, M., D. D. Devi, A. K. Shanker, A. Sheeba, and U. Bangarusamy. 2005. Selenium - an antioxidative protectant in soybean during senescence. Plant and Soil. 272: 77- 86.

Hajiboland, R., and L. Amjad. 2007. Does antioxidant capacity of leaves play a role in growth response to selenium at different sulfur nutritional status? Plant Soil Environ. 53:207–215.

Hartikainen, H., P. Ekholm, V. Piironen, T. Xue, T. Koivu, and M. Yli-Halla. 1997. Quality of the ryegrass and lettuce yields as affected by selenium fertilization. Agric. Food Sci. Finland. 6:381- 387.

Hartikainen H, T. Xue, and V. Piironen. 2000. Selenium as an anti-oxidant and pro-oxidant in ryegrass. Plant and Soil. 225: 193- 200.

Harris, D., B. S. Raghuwanshi, J. S. Gangwar, S. C. Singh, K. D. Joshi, A. Rashid and P. A. Hollington.  2001. Participatory evaluation by farmer of on-farm seed priming in wheat in India,Nepal,  and Pakistan.  Exp.Agric. 37:403-415.

Hosinikhah, F. S., S. Parsa, R. Tavakol Afshari and A. R. Esmaieli. 2013. Effect vitamin c and vitamin E on seed detrioration prosses of two cultivar  seasam.  Iranian J.  Seed Sci.  Technol. 2: 83-100.  

Ellis, R.H., and E.H. Roberts. 1981. The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seed. Seed Sci.  Technol. 9: 373-409.

 Eisvand, H.R., and M.A. Alizadeh. 2002. Evaluation some physiological quality characters (percentage of  germination, speed of germination, and vigor index) of Dracocephalum moldavica L. by accelerated aging test. Iranian Rangelands and Forest Plant Breed. and Gen. Res. 11: 249-256.

Judi, M. and F. Sharifzadeh. 2006. Effect of Hydropriming on cultivars barley. Biaban magazine.11: 99-109.

Kaur, S., A. K. Gupta, and N. Kaur, 2003. Priming of chickpea seeds with water and mannitol overcomes the effect of salt stress on seedling growth. Int. Chickpea and Pigeonpea Newsl. 10: 18-20.

Kong, L., M. Wang, and D. Bi, 2005. Selenium modulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes, osmotic homeostasis and promotes the growth of sorrel  seedlings under salt stress. Plant Growth Regulation. 45: 155 163.

 Kuznetsov, V., V. P.  Kidin, and V. Vladimir.  2004. Protective effect of selenium on wheat plant under droughtstress. Am. Soc. Plant Biol. 24-28 July. Lake Buena Vista, FL USA.

Pennanen, A., T. Xue, and H. Hartikainen. 2002. Protective role of selenium in plant subjected to severe UVirradiation stress. J. Appl. Bot. 76: 66- 76.

Prins, 2011

Maguire, J. D. 1962. Speed of germination - aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and  vigour. Crop Sci. 2:176-177.

McDonald, M.B. 2000. Seed priming. In: M. Black and J. D. Bewley (eds.) Seed Technology and its Biological Basis, pp. 287-325. CRC Press, FL, USA.

Mehra, V., J. Tripathi and A.A. Powell. 2003. Aerated hydration treatment improves the response of brassica juncea and Brassica campestris seeds to stress during germination. Seed Sci. Technol. 31: 57-70.

Murungu,  F. S., C. Chiduza, P. Nyamugafat, L.J. Clark,  W.R., Whalley, and W.E.  Finch-Savage. 2004. Effects of ‘on-farm seed priming’ on consecutive daily sowing occasions on the emergence and growth  of maize in semi-arid Zimbabwe. Field Crops Res. 89: 49-57.

Navaz, F., M.Y.  Ashraf, R. Ahmad, and E. A. Waraich. 2013. Selenium (Se) Seed priming induced growth and biochemical changes in wheat under water deficit conditions. Biol.Trace Element. Res. 151: 284-293.

Sajedi, N. A., and E,  gholinezhad. 2012. Response of yield and  yield components of rainfed wheat cultivars to salicylic acid and selenium. Iranian J. Field Crops Res. 10: 614-621.

Sharifzadeh, F., H. Heidari Zolleh, H. Mohamadi and M. Janmohamadi. 2006.  Study of Osmotic  Priming Effects on Wheat (Triticum aestivum) germination in different temperatures and local seed Masses. J. Agron. 5: 647-657.

Padmaja, K., D. K. K. Prasad, and A. R. K. Prasad. 1989. Effect of selenium on chlorophyll biosynthesis in mung bean seedling. Phytochemistry. 28:3321 3324.

Preedy ., V. et al. 2011. Nutsand seeds in health and disease prevention. Academic Press. pp. 960–967.

Rabieian, A., M. Jiriaie and A. Aynaband. 2014.  Effects of selenium in decreasing effects of salinity negative and seed low storage in germination of Rice.  Environ. stress crop Sci. 7:53-63.

Ramos, S. J.,  V. Faquin,  L. R. G. Guilherme,  E. M. Castro, F.W. Avila, G. S. Carvalho,  C.E.A. Bastos, C. Oliveira. 2010. Selenium biofortification and antioxidant activity in lettuce  plants fed with selenate and selenite. Plant Soil Environ. 56: 584-588.

Rotruck, J.T., A. L. Pope, H. E. Ganther and W. G. Hoekstra.1973. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. 179: 588-590.

Rudrapal, D. and R.N. Basu. 2004. The role of initial seed vigour status in the expression effect of wet and dry seed treatment in french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Seed Sci. Technol. 32: 205-212.

Timothy, P. 2001. Glutation-related enzymes and selenium status: implications for oxidative stress-Biochem, Pharm. 62: 237-281.

Xiaoqin, Y., C. Jianzhou and W. Guangyin. 2009. Effects of drought stress and selenium supply on growth and physiological characteristics of wheat seedlings.Acta Physiol. Plant. 31:1031-1036.

Yao, X. Q., J. Z. Chu and G.Y. Wang.. 2009. Effects of selenium on Wheat seedlings under Drought Stress. Biol.Trace Elem. Res. 130: 283–290.

Yao, X., J. Chu, X. He, and C. Ba. 2011. Protective Role of selenium in Wheat seedlings Subjected to Enhanced UVB Radiation. Russian. J. Plant Physiol. 58: 283–289.